Territorial variations. – During the Second World War there were numerous territorial variations that occurred in Romania. First of all it lost Bessarabia and northern Bucovina occupied by the USSR on June 27-30, 1940 (50,400 sq. Km. And 3,700,000 residents); then the northern CriŞana, the MaramureŞ and the northern and eastern part of Transylvania, including the SomeŞ valley and the high valleys of the MureŞ and the Olt (43,104 sq. km. and 2,633,000 residents) in favor of Hungary (arbitration of Vienna of 30 August 1940); finally southern Dobruja (7726 sq km and 378,000 residents) in favor of Bulgaria (Treaty of Craiova of 7 September 1940). The Romanian state was thus reduced, at the end of 1940, to an area of 193,819 sq km. with approximately 13,500,000 residents. In 1941, however, hostilities broke out between Germany and the USSR, Romania recovered northern Bucovina and Bessarabia (annexation law 3 September 1941) and extended its administration to the so-called Transnistria, between Nistro and Bug. The last territorial order of Romania was established by the Treaty of Paris of 10 February 1947. In addition to Transnistria and the whole of Bessarabia assigned to the USSR, Romania lost northern Bukovina to Russia, while southern Dobruja was definitively assigned to Bulgaria. On the other hand, Romania has regained from Hungary the territories that had been taken from it in 1940. Within the new borders, Romania measures 237,752 sq km.
Population. – On 13 August 1939 a new administrative division was adopted: the existing 71 districts (jude ţ e) were replaced by the subdivision into ten regions (ţ useless) headed by a resident. This new administrative structure that came to bring together in each region from four to ten jude ţ e (which remained as minor divisions) had the primary purpose of trying to eliminate the autonomist tendencies of the ancient circumscriptions. However, with a subsequent decree, dated September 1941, the Romanian state was brought back to the old administrative division. For Romania 1996, please check pharmacylib.com.
On April 6, 1941, a general census of the Romanian population was carried out within the borders existing at that time. According to this census, the total population of Romania was 13,492,983 residents But within the new boundaries established by the Treaty of Paris, the population was estimated in 1945 at around 16,472,000 residents
The population divided by regions, within the new borders, was roughly divided as follows in 1941:
The population of the main cities calculated in 1945 was as follows: Bucharest 984,619 residents; Cluj 110,956; IaŞi 108,987; TimiŞoara 108,296; PloeŞti 105,114; Brǎila 97,293; Galaţi 93,229; Oradea Mare 92.943; BraŞov 85,192; Arad 82,882; Constance 79,716; Craiova 74,786; Sibiu 63,738.
Products. – The lost regions from Romania were large producers of wheat and maize (Bessarabia) and sheep and horse breeders (Southern Dobruja). Despite a marked decrease in these products, Romania remains an essentially agricultural country. In 1945, of the territorial surface, 41.1% was arable; 1.9% to tree crops; 18.5% to meadows and pastures; 25.9% to forests.
Wheat and corn still represent the two prevalent crops: the first (in 1945: 2,081,000 ha. And 10,656,000 q.) Is widely exported; the second (in 1945: 3.415.000 ha. and 10.985.000 q.) represents the foundation of the peasant diet. The needs of family consumption have advanced the crops of legumes, potatoes, beans, etc., and the industrial ones of flax (in 1945: 30,000 ha. And 72,000 q.) And hemp (in 1945: 98,000 ha. And 306,000 q.). of fiber). Among the industrial crops, sugar beet is also involved, which in 1945 invested 43,700 ha. For breeding, a 1945 estimate gave: 2,484,000 cattle, 5,628,000 sheep and 185,000 goats, 1,020,000 pigs, 748,000 horses.
The mineral wealth remained intact or almost intact, despite the territorial transfers. The most up-to-date figures of mining production are: for oil (1946), 4,188,000 tons; for lignite (1944), 2,271,000 tons; for natural gas (methane, 1945), 1,774,000,000 cubic meters; for rock salt (1944), 165,000 t.
Among the industries, the greatest progress took place before the war in the textile industries, which had gradually reached first place, both in terms of the workforce employed and in relation to the value of production. In 1939 the cotton mill had 250,000 spindles and 14,500 looms, the wool mill 153,000 spindles (between carded and worsted) and 4370 looms, the silk mill 1766 looms. The trade movement for the period 1940-44 (excluding gold and silver) was 27.4; 30.5; 45.0; 90.0; 30.0 billion lei for imports and 36.8 billion ; 41.3; 52.8; 71.1; 32.2 million for export.
Economy and Finance. – In June 1948 the nationalization of vast sectors of national economic life was decided; Almost all industrial activities, mines, oil wells, communications and transport, banks, insurance companies, foreign trade fall under the law of nationalization. The former owners will be indemnified in the form of public debt securities, the amortization of which will be handled by an expressly established “Nationalized Industry Fund”. An economic plan was approved for 1949 which provides for investments of 76.7 billion lei.
The state budget varied as follows:
The external public debt is estimated at around 500 million dollars.
The inflationary process, already manifested before the Second World War (circulation 29.4 billion in 1937, 70.5 billion in May 1941), intensified significantly during the war (in June 1945, 649 billion lei) and worsened more immediately after (48.451 billion lei as of August 14, 1947). The official exchange rate against the dollar, which in 1938 was 140.12 lei, had thus risen in June 1947, for private imports, to 450.188 lei per dollar. The monetary reform was implemented on August 15, 1947. All the money in circulation was withdrawn and replaced with new notes, at the exchange rate of 20,000 lei. old for a new one (equal to 6.6 milligrams of gold at 9/10; 150 lei = 1 US dollar). All prices and wages were adjusted to the new purchasing power of the leu. The maximum amount of convertible money for private individuals was set from a minimum of 1.5 million for non-professional people to a maximum of 5 million lei old for farmers; the public bodies were able to convert all the currency in their possession and the companies (except the commercial ones which excluded themselves from the exchange rate to force them to liquidate their stocks) a sum equal to the wages paid in the month of July. The unconverted sums were deposited in interest-free blocked accounts and thus on 48.451 billion lei old were converted only 27,550 billion, equal to approximately 1.4 billion lei stabilized. At the same time, the mandatory delivery to the National Bank of the monetary gold and currencies existing in the country was ordered (against these sales another 1.5 billion lei was issued). Following the gradual release of blocked accounts and the granting of credits to the production, circulation of the National Bank tickets, however, was rising, to 19 June 1948, to 29.8 billion herself. The National Bank’s gold reserves amounted to US $ 217 million in June 1948
The currency monopoly is exercised by the National Bank, known as the “Bank of the Romanian People’s Republic” since November 1948; that of foreign trade by special state bodies of recent constitution. In accordance with the nationalization law of June 1948, the state has claimed for itself the monopoly of credit activity; only the Central Bank, the Investment Credit Bank, the Savings Bank and those credit institutions, created by virtue of treaties with foreign states, whose capital is partly owned by the Romanian state, partly owned by the Romanian state, remain as distinct entities. States. All remaining credit institutions will be under the control of the Minister of Finance and the Central Bank. People’s banks will be abolished unless they turn into cooperatives.