Romania Climate

By | December 23, 2021

Due to its situation and its relief, Romania has a continental climate with a mountainous tendency in the Carpathian regions, with a steppe tendency in the plains.

The annual average temperatures are 2 ° lower than those of the Atlantic coast at the same latitude; the 9 ° isotherm passes through Bucovina and that of 11 ° passes through Bucharest and Sulina. But in January Romania is included in the gulf of the −3 ° and −4 ° isotherms, which descend from Königsberg and Riga and then turn north-east along the Black Sea coast, which is somewhat less subject to low temperatures. In July, the highest average temperatures, 22 ° and 23 °, dominate the Wallachian plain and in southern Bessarabia, while the Dobruja coast has slightly lower temperatures. For Romania geography, please check

The excursion is therefore approximately 24 ° everywhere. Average temperature extremes in Bucharest reach −8 ° and + 30 °.

If we consider the true temperatures, the influence of the relief is shown not only in the relative freshness of the entire Carpathian region, but also in the exceptional rigor of the winters in closed basins. The temperature inversion is almost the rule in Braşov and Cluj, where the January average falls below −5 °.

The differences in the distribution of precipitation can be explained very well by the relief. All the minima are in the regions sheltered by the mountains, in southern Bessarabia (400 and even 300 mm.), In Bărăgan and lower Oltenia (500), and even in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin, sheltered by the Bihor (Câmpia and north valley -south of Mureş). All the peaks are determined by the main reliefs and are located in the vicinity of the Olt (summit of Bihor, western Banat massifs, volcanic chain of Hargitta, Căliman and Rodna).

The annual distribution of rainfall hints at a regime slightly influenced by the proximity of the Mediterranean: the summer continental maximum is found at the end of spring. Since the high temperatures persist until the beginning of autumn, especially in the plains of Wallachia and Dobruja and south of Bessarabia, there is a real aridity in the vegetation and in the regime of the rivers (aridity index 18 in September to Bucharest).

Prolonged snow cover is also a feature of Romania’s continental climate. Snow falls for an average of 23 days in Bucharest and stays on the ground for more than two months of the year. In Transylvania the high hills are often still white in the Easter period around Cluj, as in Bucovina around Cernăuti.

The wind regime explains these characteristics of the climate and, in particular, the abnormal variations of the weather: fatal drought at the crops, full of rivers that interrupt the communication routes, facts that are much less exceptional than elsewhere in a country with a continental climate and strong hypsometric contrasts.

Atmospheric pressure is generally lower in summer than in winter; the winds from the north and north-east dominate during the cold season, in which the Siberian anticyclone often pushes as far as Transylvania, while the winds from the west dominate in the hot season. The passage of cyclonic depressions along the northern Mediterranean route (Italy, Balkans) affects Romania above all at the end of winter and in spring; from this derives the maximum rainfall in May-June, which is general. The existence of a continental anticyclone on average Europe can have significant consequences in summer.

The names of the winds are not the same and their effects are also different in the Carpathian regions and in the lowlands. In Wallachia and Moldavia the criv ă ţ is known as a cold wind from the north-east, the austru as a humid and warm south-west wind that brings rain. Conditions are different in Transylvania.

It would also be possible to distinguish many regional varieties of climate. Among the plains of the Carpathian foreland, Oltenia has the most southerly characters, the mildest winters (Craiova −0 °, 9 in January), the wettest springs (maximum in May), the most arid (28 mm. of rain only in September); on the other hand, the north of Moldavia-Bessarabia has the northernmost physiognomy (the difference of the January averages is 4 ° between Craiova and Dorohoi, that of July is about the same). The sub-Carpathian hills are relatively warmer than the criv ă ţ- swept plain of Muntenia(Câmpulung, despite an altitude exceeding 300 m., Has an average in January one degree higher than that of Bucharest) and the rainfall is not significantly higher. Even the southern Carpathian valleys are not as cold and humid as one might expect, at least below 1000m; in Sinaia (860 m.) the January temperature is only 1 °, 6 ° lower than that of Bucharest and the snow cover lasts only 16 days longer. On the other hand, the Transylvanian Basin is relatively cold for altitudes ranging between 300 m. and 600 m.: Cluj and Braşov have a very harsh mountain climate.

Romania Climate