Romania Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Romania Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

The official name of the state is România, Romania

Romania is a parliamentary democracy , a semi-presidential republic. The bicameral parliament consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, and their term of office is four years. Both chambers are equal (symmetric bicameralism).

President (currently Klaus Iohannis, elected 2014 and 2019) is directly elected for 5 years.

Parliamentary elections for both parliamentary chambers took place in Romania on 6 December 2020. The Social Democratic Party (PSD) won them with 28.90% or 29.32%, followed by the National Liberal Party (PNL), the Union for the Rescue of Romania/PLUS (USR/PLUS), the Alliance for the Unification of Romania (AUR) and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR). Voter turnout reached 33.24% and was the lowest voter turnout since 1989. In this election period, Florin Citu (PNL) was prime minister from the elections until November 2021 and formed a center-right coalition government based on PNL, USR-PLUS and UDMR. In autumn 2021, there was a party crisis within the PNL, which resulted in the collapse of the government and the formation of a new grand coalition of PSD, PNL and UDMR. As of November 25, 2021, the Prime Minister of Romania is Nicolae Ciucă (PNL). The government’s priority is the implementation of the National Recovery Plan and large-scale investments in transport, energy, regional development and, due to the conflict in Ukraine, an increase in defense investments from 2% of GDP to 2.5%. Significant changes should also take place in the area of ​​justice, and the grand coalition between PSD, PNL and UDMR has a sufficient number of members of parliament to make the changes. In the area of ​​justice, he intends to make changes to the Constitution, reform the Constitutional Court and judicial inspections, and abolish the Special Section for Criminal Investigation in the Judiciary. Health care reform and improvement of the school system are also on the agenda. More information on the composition of the Romanian government can be obtained at Check computerminus to learn more about Romania political system.

Foreign policy of the country

Relations with other countries

  • Romania has been a member of the European Union since 2007, and a member of NATO since 2004. It has key security ties with the United States of America, which has been militarily present in the country since 2005.
  • It is not part of the Schengen area.
  • Since 1 January 2007, the Representation of the European Commission has been operating in Romania.
  • The government coalition is clearly pro-European.
  • As far as the government program is concerned, the government intends, among other things, to strengthen the role and influence of RO in the EU and NATO and to develop partnerships with the USA in the area of ​​foreign relations. In the field of defense, he intends to increase the budget to the level of 2.5% of GDP (2% of GDP has been spent by Romania on defense for 6 years in a row) and to strengthen relations with NATO and the EU. Check relationshipsplus for Romania defense and foreign policy.
  • In 2004, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled in favor of Romania in the dispute with Ukraine regarding the Ukrainian-administered Serpent Island (Zmiyinyy/Serpilor) or in the matter of the delimitation of maritime borders.


Number of inhabitants : 19,201,662 (as of 01/01/2021)

This year, the 13th census is being held from February to July.

Population density : approx. 90 inhabitants per 1 km²

Nationality composition

  • 89.5% Romanians,
  • 6.7% of Hungarians,
  • 2.5% Roma,
  • 0.3% of Germans,
  • 0.3% of Ukrainians,
  • 0.2% of Turks
  • and then Serbs, Tatars, Slovaks, Czechs, and others.

The Czech expatriate community (in the last census thousand people, the latest official figure is thousand people. According to the expatriates themselves, this number is very low) in the Romanian Banat is shrinking mainly due to the gradual departure of Czech expatriates mostly to the Czech Republic. The departure is caused by the demanding living conditions in the relatively underdeveloped mountain countryside with a lack of job opportunities. Local Czechs and Slovaks have been organized in the Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania since 1990. The union is organized into four self-governing regional branches: Bihor, Arad, Timișoara and South Banat with headquarters in New Moldava. Most Czechs belong to the South Banat branch, whose chairman is Štefan Bouda, e-mail: The chairman of the Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania and also the deputy representing the minority is Adrian-Miroslav Merka, e-mail: The Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania, as well as other minority organizations from Romania, can participate in the parliamentary elections.

According to the 2011 census, the majority of the population professes Christianity . The Romanian Orthodox Church has about 20 million members worldwide, making it the second largest Orthodox Church in the world after the Russian Orthodox Church.

  • 81% Romanian Orthodox Church,
  • 6.2% Protestant Church,
  • 4.3% Roman Catholic Church,
  • 0.8% Greek Catholic Church.