Romania Arts Part III

By | December 23, 2021

Surrealism is represented by some artists who maintain in their works a balance between the transcription of reality and its projection into the fantastic: F. Niculiu (born in 1928), S. Bălasa (born in 1932), S. Iclozan (born in 1938), S. Câltea (born in 1940), P. Ribariu (born in 1939), I. Gînju (born in 1942).

In the field of decoration, both pictorial and sculptural, there is a notable development with young people such as V. Setran (born in 1935), S. Epure (born in 1940), B. Nitescu (born in 1942).

Without occupying a specific place in one of the aforementioned currents, O. Grigorescu (b. 1933) says his personality, inspired, as well as C. Mara (b. 1934), by the Italian Quattrocento.

An isolated figure of contemporary Romanian painting is J. Tuculescu (1910-1962), who stands out, towards the end of the Thirties, through his realistic landscapes with expressionist accents, to evolve, after the war, towards a painting in which the he artist introduces elements of ancient Romanian folklore into a repertoire of abstract symbolic forms. For Romania 2007, please check extrareference.com.

Sculpture makes use of the great possibilities of expression to fit into the transformation of contemporary urban conditions. Many works are designed by artists to be integrated into an urban or natural architectural complex, capable of enhancing the spatial efficiency of forms. This is the meaning given by O. Maitec (born in 1924), one of the most valid Romanian contemporary sculptors, to his work made above all of wooden sculptures of a symbolic nature. Young artists who stand out in the field of wood compositions, F. Codre (born in 1943), G. Apostu (born in 1934) , G. Iliescu-Călinesti (born in 1932), N. Tiron (born in 1935), P. Nicăpetre (born in 1936), M. Buculei (born in 1940), C. Breazu (born in 1943), M. Spàtaru (born in 1938), V. Gorduz (born in 1933), H. Flămîndu (born in 1941), G. Minea (born in 1939).

Faithful to the traditional forms of sculpture are expressed I. Irimescu (born in 1903), V. Gheza (born in 1913) who made his debut with wooden sculptures on rustic themes, later moving on to large compositions and monumental historical complexes, I. Vlasiu (born in 1900), author of compositions inspired by folkloric literature.

A realistic vision realized in a modern style can be found in artists such as I. Onită (born in 1923), J. Kassargian (born in 1936), M. Stefănescu (born in 1929), I. Szervatiusz (born in 1903), P. Balogh (born in 1920), and C. Lucaci (born in 1923).

The neo-baroque with its problems attracted P. Vasilescu (born in 1936), M. Cocea (born in 1935), S. Radu (born in 1906), and above all C. Popovici (born in 1938).

The graphics. – Stimulated by modern needs, various genres are developed in the field of graphics and above all the poster. Alongside the previous masters, I. Molnar (born in 1907), I. Cova (born in 1912), V. Grigorescu (born in 1923), M. Chirnoagă (born in 1930), N. Zamfir (born in 1926) stand out), M. Ardeleanu (born in 1930), A.-M. Smighelschi (born in 1935).

Book illustration is attracting more and more graphic artists and painters: V. Munteanu (born in 1927) and B. Gănescu (born in 1929) are among the best known in this field also internationally. Traditional graphics are making significant progress, thanks to numerous new techniques. From the early postwar years, V. Kazar (born in 1913), M. Petrascu (born in 1915), G. Ivancenco (1914-1979), A. Iliut (born in 1913), E. Popa (born 1919). One of the most representative artists of contemporary Romanian graphics, M. Chirnoagă, with his engravings, etchings and some sculptures, starts from an expressionist vision. Of expressive finesse are the engravings by G. Brătescu (born in 1929). The engravings by I. Donca (born 1936) and St. Done (born in 1937) have a precise expressionist character. T. Nicorescu (born in 1926) and D. Erceanu (born in 1943) express themselves with surrealist elements placed at the service of a broad philosophical problem. Known for their very modern decorative graphics are Romania Stoica (born 1942), J. Stendl (born 1939), T. MoisescuStendl (born 1938), and E. Lucaci-Baias (born 1936). The caricature follows the traditions inherited from C. Damadian (born in 1919), E. Taru (born in 1913), A. Poch (born in 1930), A. Matty (born in 1924), N. Cobar (b.1915)). Stendl (born in 1939), T. MoisescuStendl (born in 1938), and E. Lucaci-Baias (born in 1936). The caricature follows the traditions inherited from C. Damadian (born in 1919), E. Taru (born in 1913), A. Poch (born in 1930), A. Matty (born in 1924), N. Cobar (b.1915)). Stendl (born in 1939), T. MoisescuStendl (born in 1938), and E. Lucaci-Baias (born in 1936). The caricature follows the traditions inherited from C. Damadian (born in 1919), E. Taru (born in 1913), A. Poch (born in 1930), A. Matty (born in 1924), N. Cobar (b.1915)).

Applied decorative art is achieved not only with ornamental objects – while the Romanian artisan traditions continue to develop freely – but primarily with creative activities linked to a new conception of the aesthetics of space and environment. Applied and decorative art therefore embraces as a whole both art (painting, upholstery, etc.) linked to architecture, as well as that of the environment (fabrics, ceramics, glassware, furniture).

There are possibilities for development for monumental art. All the large and numerous urban and architectural complexes of the country among which we must mention those of Bucharest, Iaṣi, PiatraNeamt, Galaţi, Vaslui, Suceava, Bacău, Baia Mare, Cluj, Timiṣoara, those of the Romanian coast, Costinesti, Mamaia, Mangalia, etc., are designed and built with a rich intervention of monumental art.

Many valid artists have specialized in decorative art proper, appreciated in the country and abroad, such as P. Mateescu (born in 1927) and C. Badea (born in 1940), well-known ceramists, and M. Podeanu (1927- 1975) and G. Stoichita (born in 1924) in the tapestry branch, where some painters such as I. Nicodim (born in 1932), author of the Inno all’Uomo tapestry, destined for the Unesco Palace in Paris, and A. Lupas (born in 1942), artists who have achieved remarkable results with their personal experiences. Glass objects and sculpture have a talented representative in the sculptor Z. Baicoianu (born in 1910).

To these techniques are added others – patterned fabrics, wood, leather, etc. -, which, through unique specimens or prototypes destined to be multiplied in industry, have the purpose of spreading art in everyday life. As for the Romanian artistic tradition, popular applied art has had and still has creations of great value. At the center of attention is the problem of enhancing these traditions. Traditional folk decorative art is also achieved by other means: the encouragement of folk crafts, the organization of permanent exhibitions of old and new folk art. The important purchases made by the folk art museums of Bucharest and other cities of the country guarantee the conservation of the most significant works of this kind.

With all these means, art in the Romania has not only development prospects, but also profound spiritual efficacy.

Romania Arts Part III