Romania Armed Forces

By | December 23, 2021

Army. – The Romanian army is a standing conscript army. Its first nuclei date back to the village militia, created in 1831, and reorganized by Alessandro Cuza, in 1860. On the eve of the world war, it possessed about 7,000 officers, 138,000 troops, 3,500 horses, 220 batteries. During the World War, it mobilized a total of about 1,250,000 men.

Balanced force: approximately 14,600 officers, 108,000 non-commissioned officers and enlisted men. Supreme head of the armed forces (army, air force, navy) is the king, who, in peacetime, delegates his functions to the Minister of National Defense and, in times of war, can entrust the supreme command to a general.

The Ministry of National Defense includes organs common to the three armed forces (personnel, monitoring, accounting, veterinary service, military schools, litigation, Military Justice) and special organs for individual forces, including the army for the following: a) the senior management, command and training: army superior council, army general staff, army inspectorate general, army technical inspectorate general; b) technical management: general inspectorate of territorial commands; general inspectorates of arms of infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineers.

The superior council of the army is a permanent advisory body, which has a function and composition similar to that of the army council in Italy. The great general staff (corresponding to the command of the body of staff in Italy) includes various departments and offices: ordering and mobilization, information and counter-intelligence; operations; services; training; transport; historical. Three committees function in the Grand General Staff: advisory to the Grand General Staff; advisory for war material; advisory for military education. The general inspectorates of the army supervise and control the education and preparation for war of the commands, troops and services placed annually under them. The general technical inspectorate of army supervises the military technical high school, technical plants, schools and centers for the use of aggressive war chemicals. The general inspectorate of the territorial commands supervises and controls the work of the bodies that attend to the territorial organization of the army. The general weapon inspectorates have functions similar to those of the corresponding inspectorates of the Italian army. For Romania military, please check

The territory is divided into seven army corps regions. In each of them, the command functions are distinct from the territorial ones and entrusted to two different categories of military bodies.

The army includes: large units: 7 army corps, 21 infantry divisions, 1 hunter corps (mountain troops) on two divisions, 3 divisions and 1 autonomous cavalry brigade; troops: infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineering, chemical weapons; services.

Each army corps has: from 2 to 4 divisions of infantry or hunters, services, non-undivided elements.

The infantry division is made up of: 3 infantry regiments, 1 field artillery regiment, 1 howitzer regiment; the hunters division of: 3 hunter groups, 3 mountain artillery groups, 1 mountain howitzers regiment; the cavalry division of: 4 red hussar regiments, 2 black hussars, 1 horse artillery group.

The infantry weapon includes: 88 regiments, 6 hunter groups, divisional machine guns. The regiment has 3 battalions, each on 4 companies, including 1 machine gunners; the hunting groups are on 2 battalions. The infantry has the following armament: rifle or musket, with bayonet; submachine gun; machine gun; 37 or 53 mm accompanying gun.

The cavalry weapon includes: 1 royal escort regiment, 24 army regiments (12 red hussars, 12 cavalry), 7 army corps regiments, 1 group of mounted hunters. The regiment has 2 to 3 groups, each on 2 or 3 squadrons. The cavalry is equipped with the following armament: musket; saber; spear; pistol; submachine gun; 37 mm accompanying gun.

The artillery weapon includes: 2 guard regiments, 21 mountain mortar regiments, 7 heavy regiments, 6 mountain groups, 22 fortress groups. The regiment has 3 groups, from 2 to 3 batteries.

The genius weapon includes: 3 railway regiments, 3 link regiments, 1 bridge regiment, 7 digging regiments, 1 mountain digging regiment, 1 motorists regiment, 1 mountain connecting battalion, 6 fortification battalions. The regiment has 2 to 4 battalions.

The chemical weapon consists of 4 gas defense regiments.

Military service is compulsory, from the age of 21.

The duration of the military obligation is 29 years (from 21st to 50th): 5 years in the active army, 15 in the reserve, 9 in the militia. Pre-military education is compulsory, from 19 to 21 years of age. The theoretical duration of the shutdown is 2 years; the effective one, of 18 months. Soldiers with at least a 1st degree middle school license complete only 12 months of service; they supply officers and reserve NCOs.

The officers are drawn from: those of the active army, from pupils (normal recruitment) and from pupil non-commissioned officers (exceptional recruitment) of special military schools, where they complete a two-year course of study; reserve ones, from those enrolled to 12 months’ detention, through courses at special preparatory schools for reserve officers.

The career non-commissioned officers are drawn from conscript non-commissioned officers judged suitable at the end of a specific course at a non-commissioned pupil school.

Navy. – The Romanian navy was born at the time of the constitution of the principality and therefore the kingdom of Romania. As the country does not have its own shipyards, the current as well as the previous units of the Romanian navy were mostly built abroad in Italian or English shipyards. Other units were bought in France after the World War or assigned to Romania following the partition of the Austro-Hungarian fleet.

Currently the Romanian navy includes the following units:

4 destroyers: Regele Ferdinand and Regina Maria, launched in 1928-29 in the Pattison shipyards in Naples, from 1850 tons. and 35/ 38 knots, armed with 5 / 120.1 / 76 anti-aircraft gunner 2 to 40 and 2 triple launch tubes 533; they are equipped to carry 50 torpedoes; M ă r ă sti and M ă r ă ş e ş ti, launched in the same yards in 1917, from 1410/1745 tons. and 34 knots, armed with 5 / 120.4 / 76.2 machine guns and 2 twin 450 launch tubes. At the outbreak of the war these two units were under construction in Naples together with two others, on behalf of the Romanian government; were also, given the impossibility of sending them to the Black Sea, incorporated into the Italian fleet with the names of Sparviero and Nibbio, and took part in the war in the Adriatic in 1917-18: after the war they were brought to the Black Sea by Italian crews and resold to Romania.

3 torpedo boats: Naluca, Sineul, Simul, former Austro-Hungarians, launched in 1913-14 in Rijeka and Trieste and assigned by the peace treaty to Romania. They are 260 ton units. and 24 knots, armed with 2/66 and with 2 launch tubes of 450.

1 Delfinul submarine, launched in 1929 in Monfalcone, of 650/900 tons and 14/9 knots, armed with 8 launch tubes of 533 and 1/102.

4 gunboats, launched in 1916-17 in Brest and Lorient and bought from France after the World War: units of 350/390 tons. and 12/15 knots, armed with 2/100 and 2 machine gunners.

2 river monitors: Basarabia and Bucovina, former Austro-Hungarian, launched in 1915, from 560 tons. and 12 knots, the first armed with 2/120, 3 120.2 / 47 howitzers, 4 machine gunners; the second with 2/120, 2 howitzers of 120, 2/66, 2/47 and 4 machine gunners, located on the Danube. In addition, 5 antiquated river monitors, also ex Austro-Hungarian, of 650 tons. and 12 knots, armed with 3/120, 1/75, 2/47 and a machine gun, located on the Danube.

7 patrol ships launched in 1907 in England, 45 tons. and 18 knots, armed with 1/47 and a machine gun: located on the Danube.

Romania also owns the 350 ton motor-sailer Mircea, a training ship; a submarine tender, Constan ţ a, launched in 1928; some patrol units for the mouths of the Danube and the Black Sea and some 40-tonne masts, bought in Italy.

The main naval base is Constance, where the Naval Academy also exists.

The Romanian navy has 289 officers, some of whom have attended the Naval Academy of Livorno; and 3700 non-commissioned officers and municipalities.

Military aviation. – The State Undersecretariat for Air controls: military aviation, technical, meteorological, administrative and health services; it also relies on an arsenal for repairs and constructions, with an annual production capacity of 100 aircraft, and an armament center.

The Romanian air force consists of: a) a fighter flotilla of three groups of three squadrons each; b) a group of three day bombing squadrons and one night bombing squadron; c) three other groups comprising four reconnaissance squadrons and two fighter squadrons; d) a group of seaplanes on three squadrons; e) an aeronautics group; f) another aeronautical group made up of 5 spherical companies and a technical company; g) a brigade against airplanes on three regiments.

The training schools are those for senior officers, for piloting, for officers, for aeronautical engineering: all with their own technical installations, land for exercises, etc.

There are three airports in Bucharest, two in Tecuci, two in Buzău, and one in each of the following locations: Galaţi, Iaşi, Cluj, Medias, Constanta. There is also a seaplane base in Constance.

The aircraft in service are generally of foreign construction: French for hunting and bombing, Italians for maritime reconnaissance.

There are two aircraft manufacturers in Romania: the state factory in Braşov and SET in Eucarest. Some types of Romanian-designed aircraft have been built, and with them the local authorities hope to replace foreign aircraft.

Romania Armed Forces