The international community and the reconstruction of Afghanistan
The basic lines of cooperation between the international community and the Afghan government in the civil reconstruction of Afghanistan were laid down at various donor conferences. In April 2008 the Afghan government presented its Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS). At the donor conference in Brussels in October 2016, the government presented the new Afghanistan National Peace and Development Framework (ANPDF) reform program. It is designed for the period 2017 to 2021 and replaces the ANDS development strategy, which expired in 2013.
The Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), administered by the World Bank and set up in 2002, is the largest multilateral contribution to the Afghan budget, to which more than 30 donors have contributed to date.
The funds made available are intended to keep the public service functioning and thus also guarantee basic social services. In addition, the National Priority Programs (NPPs) initiated by the Afghan government are to be supported, which focus on the areas of security, government, personnel development, rural development, infrastructure and economic development. This NPPs were in the course of the new development framework plan ANPDF to more Priority programs supplemented.
According to the national priorities, there is, for example, cooperation between the ARTF and the Ministry of Education in the field of education. The Education Quality Improvement Program (EQUIP) should be the primary equal access and secondary education programs, especially for girls improved, and the quality of education increase.
One of the most successful development measures implemented by the Afghan government is the National Solidarity Program (NSP), which was started in 2003 by the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) and to this day promotes and coordinates tens of thousands of local development projects in rural areas.
The main donors of official development cooperation (ODA) for Afghanistan are the USA, Germany, the EU, including the European Commission’s Cooperation Office (EuropeAid) and the Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO), the United Kingdom and Japan, and the Asian Development Bank (ADB)
According to the international composition of the donor community, the following government development organizations are active in Afghanistan, a country located in southern Asia according to constructmaterials:
- United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
- Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
- Department for International Development (DFID)
- Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT)
- Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad)
- Danish International Development Agency (Danida)
- Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida)
- Department for International Development Cooperation (FINNIDA)
- Global Affairs Canada
- Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA)
- Agence Française de Développement (AFD)
- Agenzia Italiana per la Cooperazione allo Sviluppo (AICS) / Cooperazione Italiana allo sviluppo (DGCS)
- Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)
- Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs
In addition, other governmental and numerous non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of national and international origin provide civil reconstruction and development aid internationally.
The United Nations with its Support Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) has a central role in coordinating reconstruction activities. The following UN programs, funds and specialized agencies are also represented in the country:
- United Nations Development Program in Afghanistan (UNDP)
- United Nations Human Settlements Program (UN-Habitat)
- United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)
- United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
- United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
- United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
- United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women)
- United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
- United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS)
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
- World Food Program (WFP)
- International Labor Organization (ILO)
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
Development policy activities of the Federal Republic of Germany
The German development aid in Afghanistan had its beginnings back in the 1930’s; After the Second World War, Afghanistan was for decades the country with the highest share of the West German development aid budget. After the Soviet invasion at the end of 1979, development cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and Afghanistan was suspended, only to be resumed after the mujahideen came to power in 1992, albeit initially under conditions made difficult by the civil war.
Since the overthrow of the Taliban regime at the end of 2001, Germany has again played a major role in building the country and in development cooperation with Afghanistan. The German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), which has united the activities of the German Society for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), the German Development Service (DED) and International Training and Development (Inwent) since the beginning of 2011, the GIZ Civil Peace Service (ZFD)), the Center for International Migration and Development (CIM) and KfW Development Bank are working on this, as are numerous German, national and international non-governmental organizations on site.
In consultation with the Afghan government, the priorities of German development cooperation are in the areas of good governance, sustainable economic and employment promotion (including vocational training), urban development and municipal infrastructure (including water and energy), displacement and migration, scope for action, stabilization and civil peace service. German development cooperation focuses on six provinces in northern Afghanistan and the capital Kabul.
The BMZ has a position paper on development cooperation with Afghanistan, which sets out the future approaches, priorities and goals of German development cooperation with Afghanistan, a country located in southern Asia according to cellphoneexplorer.
In addition, Germany is participating in the EUPOL Afghanistan mission, which ended on December 31, 2016, and with the German Police Project Team (GPPT) in the development of the police force and the reform of the judiciary by promoting rule- of-law structures.
Aid organizations that are active in various areas in Afghanistan include:
- ADRA Germany
- Doctors Without Borders
- Afghan Children’s Aid Germany
- Afghan women’s association
- Afghanistan schools
- Cap Anamur / German emergency doctors
- Caritas international
- DVV International
- Handicap International
- Johanniter foreign aid
- medica mondiale
- medico international
- Oxfam Germany
- Save the Children Germany
- Shelter Now Germany
- World hunger Help
- Future Foundation Development
The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) has been tasked with academic reconstruction in Afghanistan as part of the ‘Stability Pact Afghanistan’ program since 2002.
But political foundations are also active in Afghanistan, for example the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES), the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung (HBS) and the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (KAS).
Since 2003, the Goethe Institute in Kabul (currently closed until further notice) has been offering cultural and educational programs again to promote the sustainable reconstruction of Afghan culture and cultural exchange between Germany and Afghanistan.