Recent Politics of Chile

By | December 1, 2021

During the World War, Chile sympathized with the Central Empires; but he remained neutral, indeed making a large and profitable trade with the Entente. After the war, the most important issue was still that of Tacna-Arica. In fact, in the first assembly of the League of Nations (1920), Peru and Bolivia asked that the questions relating to the Ancón treaty of 1883 (Tacna-Arica) and the Chileno-Bolivian treaty of 1904 (access to the sea of ​​Bolivia) be examined.. The Chilean delegation objected to the Company’s incompetence on the basis of art. 21 of the covenant, which mentions the Monroe doctrine; Peru withdrew its application and, like Chile, later accepted the proposal by the President of the United States, Harding, to send delegates to Washington to examine controversial issues. The Chilean-Peruvian conference took place in the federal capital from May 15 to July 20, 1922: Chile argued that the plebiscite still had to be held to decide the membership of the province of Tacna-Arica: Peru, which after the long Chilean occupation, the plebiscite would no longer have been impartial and that the dispute would therefore have to be resolved otherwise. With the protocol of July 22, 1922, the two parties accepted the arbitration of the president of the United States, who in his award of March 4, 1925, recognized that the plebiscite could take place, under the control of a commission, chaired by a delegate of the United States. This decision, which was rather favorable to Chile, was greeted with regret by Peru. The plebiscite commission, chaired by General Pershing, met in Arica on August 5, 1925: Peru requested that, before the plebiscite, the disputed territory be neutralized and completely cleared of Chile, which, while showing itself willing to make certain concessions, rejected this claim; after long discussions and after the resignation of General Pershing, the commission, on June 14, 1926, declared by a majority (United States and Peru) that a free and fair plebiscite, according to the arbitration award of March 4, 1925, was now impossible. On November 30, Kellog, Secretary of State of the United States, had a reminder in Santiago and Lima that the province of Tacna-Arica should be annexed to Bolivia, which would pay an indemnity to be divided between Chile and the Peru. While the Chilean government agreed to consider this proposal (December 4), the Peruvian rejected it (January 17, 1927). Finally, the long-standing controversy was settled with the treaty of June 3, 1929, which assigned Tacna to Peru and left Arica to Chile instead. The new border line runs ten kilometers north of the Arica-La Paz railway and parallel to it. For Chile political system, please check

F onti: The main collections are the Colección de documentos inéditos para la historia de Chile, vols. 30, Santiago 1888-1902, ed. by JT Medina; and the Colección de historiadores de Chile, ed. from JT Medina, vols. 42, Santiago 1898-1906, with the bibl. detailed. Also valuable are the sources collected and published by the German Jesuit Chile Leonhardt in Volume XIX of the Documentos para la historia Argentina, entitled Cartas anuas de la Provincia del Paraguay, Chile y Tucuman de la Comp. de Jesús, 1609-1614, Buenos Aires 1927.

Bibl.: The fundamental work remains that of D. Barros Arana, Historia general de Chile, voll. 16, Santiago 1884-1902, which reaches up to 1830 and is continued by Un decennio de la historia de Chile, 1845-1851. See also Chile Pereyra, Historia de la América española, VIII, Madrid 1926 (quick but well founded exposition) and L. Pena, Histoire du Chili, Paris 1927 (good summary). Useful are the Figueroa, Diccionario biográfico de Chile, 1550-1887, Santiago 1888, and the Medina, Diccionario biográfico colonial de Chile, Santiago 1906. In particular, on the colonial period: Amunateguy, El descubrimiento y conquer de Chile, Santiago 1862; P. Hernández, The Society of Jesus in the Assistance of Spain, IV, V, VI, VII, Madrid 1913, 1916, 1920, 1925; JT Medina, Hist. d. Court d. Holy Office of the Inquis. in Chile, voll. 2, Santiago 1890; id., The printing house in Lima, Santiago 1890. Sulla lotta per l’indipendenza e sulla repubblica, oltre ai lavori sui singoli capi, Carrera, O’Higgins, ecc. (per cui v. gli articoli appositi), cfr. B. Vicuña Mackema, General History of the Republic of Chile, Santiago 1866-82; R. Sotomayor Valdés, History of Chile, 1831-1871, Santiago 1875; H. Kunz, Der Bürgerkrieg in Chile, Vienna 1892; A. Edwards, Historical Sketch of Chilean Political Parties, Santiago 1903; Wright, The Republic of Chile, London 1905; Elliot, Chile, New York 1907; Chisholm, The independence of Chile, Boston 1911; R. Salas Edwards, Balmaceda y el parlamentarismo en Chile, Santiago 1925; A. Roldan, El desarrollo constitucional de Chile, Santiago 1925; L. Goldames, La evolución constitucional de Chile, I, Santiago 1926; La question de Tacna et Arica, in L’Europe nouvelle of 2 July 1927. – On the Pacific War in particular, see: D. Barros Havana, Histoire de la guerre du Pacifique, Paris 1881; P. Perolari, Peru and its terrible days, Milan 1882; T. Caivano, History of the War of America between Chilì, Peru and Bolivia, vols. 2, Turin 1882; B. Spila da Subiaco, Il Chilì in the Pacific War, 2nd ed., Rome 1886; Anon., Précis de la guerre du Pacifique, Paris 1886; F. Santini, Around the world aboard the Royal CorvetteGaribaldi ” (years 1879-80-81-82), vols. 2, Rome 1895.

Language and Literature.

The Spanish imported by the conquistadors, which replaced the indigenous languages ​​with the passing of generations, differs from Castilian for a few peculiarities, largely common to the other South American languages.

The influence of the indigenous substrate, scarce and doubtful for phonetics, is relevant for those elements of the lexicon that refer to flora, fauna, local folklore: we remember the name llama and that of the guano (or huano), from the Quechua language, the name of the poncho, the national dress consisting of a large square piece of cloth with a slit for the head, from the Mapuche language.

Andrés Bello’s attempts at spelling reform had some follow-up in Chile (eg in the use of je, ji also where the Spanish conforms to the etymology, has maintained ge, gi); but now the spelling of the Spanish Academy is almost generally followed.

For indigenous languages, see america.

Bibl.: R. Lenz, Chile. Studien, in Phonet. Studies, V, VI; id., in Zeitschr. rom. Phil., XVII (1893), p. 188 segg .; id., Etimolójico Dictionary of Chilean Voices Derived from Native American Languages, Santiago de Chile 1904-10; ML Wagner, in Zeitschr. rom. Phil., XL, pp. 286 segg., 385 segg.

Recent Politics of Chile