Qatar History, Politics, Geography and Demographics

By | December 16, 2022

Qatar (Arab. قطر ‎ = Qaṭar), officially the State of Qatar (Arab. دولة قطر ‎ = Dawlat Qaṭar), is a country in the Middle East. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia in the south, the Persian Gulf in the west, north and east. Check clothingexpress for information about Qatar.


During the pre-Islamic era, the peninsula was dominated by various foreign powers such as the Persian dynasty. During the reign of the last Persian dynasty, the Qatari peninsula was incorporated into the greater region of Bahrain.

During the Islamic era, Qatar was one of the first places where the Islamic faith was introduced. In the Middle Ages, Qatar was more than dependent, as it was an important center in the Persian Gulf-Indian Ocean trade. Various local and occupying dynasties have changed here.

in 1732 Nomadic Bedouin Bani Khalids migrated from Kuwait to the entire Bahrain region, who settled in the city of Zubara, located on the territory of Kuwait. This city very quickly became an important trade center.

In 1783, at the end of the Bani Khalid war with the invading Persians, the Persians were expelled and Zubara became the central city of the Bani Khalid. In this way, the territory of Qatar had for some time acquired the most important position in the region of Bahrain. A dozen years later, in 1797, the capital of the Bani Khalids was moved to other places.

After centuries of Ottoman and British domination of the region, Qatar became an independent state in 1971. on September 3 (but Independence Day is celebrated on December 18).

Political system

Qatar is ruled by sheikhs. The prevailing system here is called emirate – absolute monarchy.

Administrative breakdown

Qatar is divided into 10 municipalities:

  1. Doha MunicipalityDoha
  2. Guvariyaالغويرية
  3. Jumaliaجمعيلية
  4. Chaural- khor
  5. It’sevening
  6. Rajanالريان
  7. Jariyah al-Batnaجريان الباتنة
  8. Shamalin the north
  9. Um Salalام صلال
  10. Mesaidمسيعيد

For statistical purposes, municipalities are additionally divided into zones (in 2004 there were a total of 97 zones).


Qatar is a country in the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, on the Persian Gulf. It borders Saudi Arabia in the south. Qatar’s highest point is Qurayn Abu al Bawl (103). Almost the entire country is covered by desert, and there are low mountains on the west coast. It rains very rarely (precipitation less than 100 mm per year) usually in winter, when there is a storm.


The economy is based on the extraction and processing of oil and natural gas. In order to reduce the country’s dependence on oil, the government promotes fishing and agriculture. In the 1950s, smaller oil -rich countries such as Qatar and Kuwait began to invite workers from other parts of the Middle East, India and Pakistan. Its workforce was no longer sufficient for the rapidly growing oil industry. Currently, there are more immigrants than local people.


Local population of Arab origin ~62,000 (1973); others – visitors from other countries – Iran, India, Pakistan. Most believers are Muslims. 50% are illiterate.

Qatar History