Poland Road Network

By | October 31, 2022

The planned network of motorways in Poland.

The first Autobahnen were built in Poland as early as the 1930s as the German Reichsautobahnen. The construction of the highways almost came to a standstill in the communist era. Only some parts of the A2 and A4 were opened at that time. The roads were severely neglected during the communist era, but also the first 10 years after communism collapsed. Only after Poland became a member of the European Union in 2004 did this improve significantly. All highways are now refurbished and in excellent condition. Poland had the worst road network of the new EU countries after Romania. The pressure of freight traffic on the secondary road networkhas been on the rise since 2005 and until then almost all major roads were in poor condition, with severe ruts and bumps. Since 2004, the renovation of the road network has made huge strides, thousands of kilometers of roads have been re-surfaced and only a small part of the main road network is in poor condition. The proportion of bad road surfaces of the Droga krajowa has been reduced from 34% in 2001 to 12% in 2013. In 2007 Poland joined the Schengen countries, making waiting times at the borders a thing of the past. The borders with Russia, Belarus and Ukraine fell outside of it, as these countries are outside the Schengen Agreement.

Around 2010, a large highway network of thousands of kilometers long was under construction. Poland has become an important transit country for Eastern European countries and traffic pressure on the road network is increasing rapidly, partly due to the sharp increase in car ownership. Many main roads are also being renovated, so that there is a lot of catching up to do. In May 2012, the construction of no less than 1,320 kilometers of highways was underway. The pace dropped slightly after the summer of 2012 due to budget cuts and the completion of many new roads. The pace of construction accelerated again from 2014 onwards. Around 2017-2020, a large number of new motorways will be put into operation.

According to wholevehicles, the Polish road network is divided into various road classes. The highways are the autostrady and are abbreviated with the letter A and often have tolls (płatna). The maximum speed on A-roads is a maximum of 140 km/h. The expressways often hardly differ from the highways and are called drogi ekspresowe and are abbreviated with the letter S. The maximum speed on 2×2 S roads is 120 km/h. The rural main roads are the droga krajowa and are abbreviated with the letter DK. These roads sometimes also have 2×2 lanes, but have level crossings. The regional roads are called the droga wojewódzka and are abbreviated with the letters DW. European roadsare called Trasa Europejska and are abbreviated with the letter E, as everywhere in Europe.

Characteristic of the infrastructure since 2005 is the colorful composition of works of art such as bridges and viaducts and the application of aesthetically more beautiful arched bridges and extra-dosed bridges. A major disadvantage is the enormous amount of noise barriers, resulting from compliance with European regulations without using the higher values ​​customary in other countries, which means that much more must be shielded than in other countries. This legislation was relaxed in 2012, but its effect only became visible after 2015.

Road network composition

Name Length Part
droga krajowa (national roads) 19,296 km 4.7%
droga wojewódzka (provincial roads) 28,480 km 6.8%
droga powiatowa (district roads) 125,274 km 30.1%
droga gminna (municipal roads) 242.923 km 58.4%
Total road network 415,973 km

History

Opening history

See list of road openings in Poland for the main topic.

Poland’s oldest highways were built during the time when western Poland was part of the German Empire. Between 1936 and 1938, the Germans built 137 kilometers of reichsautobahn in what is now Poland. The first highway built by the Polish government itself was the S6 around Gdynia and Gdańsk which opened in 1977, in line with the first highway openings in other (then) communist countries such as Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Slovenia and Romania. During the 1980s, highways were sporadically opened, as they did during the 1990s. Since 2000, the pace of investment has increased considerably, with dozens to more than 100 kilometers being opened every year. Road construction peaked around 2012, with more than 1,400 kilometers of highway under construction in 2011, unprecedented by European standards, especially since Poland is not the largest country in Europe. Comparable figures have only been obtained in the 1930s in Germany, in the 1970s in France and in the 1990s and 2000s in Spain, countries with significantly more inhabitants and surface area.

Early history

After World War I Poland gained independence. At that time, the country was more easterly than it is now. Melchior Władysław Nestorowicz became the first minister of transport. Under his leadership, important laws were passed that laid the foundation for Polish road construction in the period 1920-1939. In 1920 a law was passed allowing the construction of public roads, in 1921 the regulation of traffic on public roads was introduced and in 1931 the road fund was established. In the 1920s and 1930s, the road network in western Poland was significantly better developed than in the east, with the capital Warszawa more or less the dividing line between eastern and western Poland. In particular, the area that was now Belarus and Ukraine had hardly any paved roads at the end of the 1930s.

In the second half of the 1930s, plans were made for a network of 2,400 kilometers of motorways. The main corridors were;

  • Poznan – Warszawa
  • ódź – Warszawa
  • Katowice – Gdynia
  • Warszawa – Stanisławów (Ivano-Frankivsk) – Romania
  • Katowice – Lwow (Lviv)
  • Puławy – Przemyśl

Due to the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, these plans had not been implemented.

Communist Poland

After World War II, Poland was in ruins. Virtually all infrastructure and cities had been destroyed by war and systematic demolition by Nazi Germany. The whole country was moved westward, Poland got land that originally belonged to Germany and the Soviet Union got land that originally belonged to Poland. Poland lost underdeveloped areas in what is now western Belarus, western Ukraine and southern Lithuania.

By moving Poland westwards, two former Reichsautobahnen came to lie in Poland, these were the present-day A4 / A18 from the German border to Wrocław and the A6 around Szczecin. At that time there was also construction on the ‘Berlinka’, a Reichsautobahn from Berlin to Kaliningrad that was only partially constructed and of which only very short parts were actually opened, these were the S22 between Elbląg and the Russian border and the DW142 east of Szczecin. In the corridor of the DK22, some infrastructure from the 1930s-40s had already been put into use.

Under the leadership of Edward Gierek in the period 1970-1980, Poland started to develop more. In the 1970s, the Gierkówka was built, a 2×2 road between Warszawa and Katowice, via Piotrków Trybunalski. This dual carriageway was completed in 1976 and is named after Edward Gierek. This was the DK1 and DK8. This was not a real motorway as there were almost no grade separated connections. In 1974 the Kielce bypass (later S7) opened and in the mid 1970s the DK7 north of Warszawa was also widened to 2×2 lanes, partly grade separated around Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, which opened in 1975. In 1977 the S6. openedas a bypass of Trójmiasto, the three cities of Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia. This is usually considered to be the first motorway built by Poland itself.

From the late 1970s, the Polish economy went downhill again. Under the communist government, Poland ‘s first toll road was built, the A4 between Katowice and Kraków, which was opened in phases between 1983 and 1990.

Recent History

The Węzeł Gliwice-Sośnica, the largest interchange in Poland.

The development of Poland’s motorway network was fairly constant throughout the 1980s and 1990s, with few road openings. This changed from the year 2000 when highways were opened every year. The real explosion of highway construction was from 2007, when an average of 100 kilometers of highway were opened each year. Although almost all of Europe went into recession from 2008, Poland escaped the dance. The country managed to achieve economic growth in all years. However, from 2011 the government budget came under pressure, which led to a large number of tenders being postponed in 2011. The tenders were subsequently resumed in 2013 and 2014 so that the construction pace remained high.

Many motorways in Poland are co-financed by the EU, up to 85% for major projects. This co-financing is a payment afterwards. First, the project will be fully funded from the Polish government budget. If the country has complied with EU regulations, a large part of the money can be recovered. In October 2012, Poland reached the limit of 2,000 kilometers of highway. Since the end of 2013, Poland has more motorways than the Netherlands. In February 2016, 1,150 kilometers of motorway were under construction. Many projects experienced delays in implementation from 2017, notably contracts awarded to Italian construction companies that were delivered many months or even more than a year behind schedule. In the period 2019-2021, 10 contracts from Italian construction companies were withdrawn due to non-performance, of which two were from TOTO, four from Impresa Pizzarotti and four from Salini-Impregilo. These construction companies also caused problems in other Eastern European countries. On November 7, 2019, the opening of the S11 along Szczecinek crossed the border of 4,000 kilometers of A and S roads.

In 2020, the ‘100 bypasses’ program was launched. By 2020, Poland had implemented more than half of the original motorway plan. The cost/benefit ratio in Poland is usually very favourable, on a number of motorways the construction costs were already earned back within 1 or 2 years and for two thirds of the projects up to 2020 the payback time was less than 10 years.

In Poland, since around 2020, contractors can choose whether to use concrete or asphalt pavement in the construction of motorways. This is relatively unusual in Europe because both types of pavement have different noise emissions and it is normally determined during the elaboration of the plan which type of pavement must be installed in order to meet the noise standards. Concrete is generally noisier than asphalt. Also, asphalt has a different cost cycle to concrete, with the asphalt overlay having to be replaced every 12-15 years while concrete lasts longer, but has a much higher end-of-life replacement cost than asphalt, making the choice of concrete or asphalt not only for the contractor is relevant, but also for the road authority in the long term.

In 2021 it was announced that more than PLN 290 billion will be made available for the completion of all planned motorways in the period up to 2030-2033. At that time, this program still included 2,500 kilometers of motorways to be built. In 2021, the last section of the S2 opened in Warsaw, including the Tunnel Ursynów, the longest tunnel in Poland at the time. With this, the Polish capital finally had a through highway for east-west traffic.

Future

Nodes

Junctions in Poland
Balice • Bielany Wrocławskie • Bielice • Brzęczkowice • Bydgoszcz-Błonie • Bydgoszcz-Południe • Bydgoszcz-Zachód • Chwaszczyno • Elbląg-Wschód • Ełk – Wschód • Gdańkiocenowiel • Gdańkiowiel • Jordan • Gdańkiowiel • Gdakioceniudnie • Kielce-zachód • Komorniki • Konotopa • Kraków-Bieżanów • Węzeł Kraków-Południe• Krzyżowa • Kurów-Zachód • Legnica-Południe • Łódź-Północ • Łódź-Południe • Lublin-Rudnik • Lublin-Sławinek • Nowe Marzy • Olsztyn-Południe • Olsztynek – Zachódódópie • Pirkódódó – dacz • Oowinek • Pozna-Krzesiny • Poznań–Wschód • Poznań–Zachód • Pyrzowice • Raczki • Róża •Rzeszów-Wschód • Rzeszów-Zachód • Szczecin-Klucz • Toruń-Południe • Warszawa-Lubelska • Warszawa-Południe • Wrocław-Północ • Wrocław-Południe

Highway

The development of the Polish motorway network.

The autostrady will form the main network, highways intended for international transit traffic. Originally it was planned to build more A-roads, but these plans have been transformed into S-roads, which is mainly an administrative change, S-roads are in fact also highways. There will be two east-west axes and one north-south axis. The A6 and A18 have grown this way historically. The A8 is an exception, because the rest of the route is constructed as S8. It is not inconceivable that some S-roads will become toll roads in the future, and will still be signposted as A-roads. The A-roads are in principle toll roads, but for the time being the A4 (largely), A6 and A18 are still toll-free.

List of autostrady

# No. Route Length
A1 Gdansk – Toruń – Łódź – Częstochowa – Bytom – Gliwice – Gorzyczki (CZ) 564 km
A2 Świecko (D) – Poznań – Łódź – Warszawa – Terespol (BY) 610 km
A4 Zgorzelec (D) – Wrocław – Opole – Gliwice – Katowice – Kraków – Tarnów – Rzeszów – Korczowa (UA) 667 km
A6 Kołbaskowo (D) – Szczecin – Rzęśnica 29 km
A8 Kobierzyce – Wrocław – Pawłowice 33 km
A18 Olszyna (D) – Krzywa 78 km
A50 Baranów – Mszczonów – Góra Kalwaria – Mińsk Mazowiecki ?

Droga ekspresowa

The droga ekspresowa is a highway with 2×2 lanes and grade separated intersections. The speed limit on 2×2 S roads is 120 km/h, which means that they are in fact just as much highways as motorways in other countries. 110 km/h applies on single-lane S-roads, but the vast majority of S-roads are constructed with 2×2 lanes, in some cases wider, such as around large cities, especially Warszawa and the Silesian urban area. It is planned to build a second carriageway for existing 1×2 S-roads. Only a handful of exceptions will remain single-lane for now, such as the S22 to Russia. Single-lane S-roads almost always have a space reservationfor 2×2 lanes and at connections count 2×2 lanes.

List of drogi ekspresowe

# No. Route Length
S1 Pyrzowice – Dąbrowa Górnicza – Sosnowiec – Tychy – Bielsko-Biała – Cieszyn – Zwardoń (SK) 135 km
S2 Warszawa-Konotopa – Warszawa-Lubelska 34 km
S3 Swinoujscie – Szczecin – Gorzów Wielkopolski – Zielona Góra – Legnica – Lubawka (CZ) 470 km
S5 Ostróda – Grudziądz – Bydgoszcz – Pozna – Wrocław 446 km
S6 Kołbaskowo – Goleniów – Koszalin – Gdynia – Gdansk 352 km
S7 Gdynia – Gdańsk – Elbląg – Płońsk – Warszawa – Kielce – Kraków – Rabka 720 km
S8 Wroclaw – Piotrków Trybunalski – Warszawa – Białystok 528 km
S10 Szczecin – Piła – Płock – Wołomin ~460 km
S11 Kołobrzeg – Koszalin – Piła – Pozna – Pyrzowice ~600 km
S12 Piotrkow Trybunalski – Radom – Lublin – Dorohusk (UA) ~315 km
S14 Emilia – ódź – Róża 43 km
S16 Olsztyn – Ełk – Białystok ~240 km
S17 Warszawa – Lublin – Hrebenne (UA) 310 km
S19 Kuźnica Białostocka (BY) – Białystok – Lublin – Rzeszów – Barwinek (SK) ~570 km
S22 Elblag – Grzechotki (RUS) 50 km
S50 Baranów – Sochaczew – Serock – Mińsk Mazowiecki ?
S51 Olsztyn – Olsztynek 40 km
S52 Cieszyn (CZ) – Bielsko-Biała – Kraków 119 km
S61 Ostrów Mazowiecki – omża – Suwałki – Budzisko (LT) 214 km
S74 Sulejow – Kielce – Nisko ~215 km
S79 Warszawa – Warszawa-Lotnisko 5 km
S86 Sosnowiec – Katowice 7 km
Motorways and Expressways in Poland

Droga Krajowa

The droga krajowa (plural: drogi krajowe) form the main road network of the country. Due to the lack of a large motorway network in Poland, DK roads served a large part of through, regional and local traffic. Most DK roads are single lane, although there are also 2×2 lane sections. In the cities they also regularly count 2×3 lanes. The major DK roads are gradually being transformed into droga ekspresowa. The quality of the droga krajowa has improved enormously, although there are still bad parts here and there. However, the vast majority are of reasonable to good quality. Due to the high traffic volumes on some axes, the traffic flow is moderate, but construction is underway to improve the DK roads or replace them with new highways.

Drogi krajowe in Poland
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 • 16 • 17 • 18 • 19 • 20 • 21 • 22 • 23 • 24 • 25 • 26 • 27 • 28 •29 • 30 • 31 • 32 • 33 • 34 • 35 • 36 • 37 • 38 • 39 • 40 • 41 • 42 • 43 • 44 • 45 • 46 • 47 • 48 • 49 • 50 • 51 • 52 • 53 • 54 • 55 • 56• 57 • 58 • 59 • 60 • 61 • 62 • 63 • 64 • 65 • 66 • 67 • 68 • 69 • 70 • 71 • 72 • 73 • 74 • 75 • 76 • 77 • 78 • 79 • 80 • 81 • 82 • 83 •84 • 85 • 86 • 87 • 88 • 89 • 90 • 91 • 92 • 93 • 94 • 95 • 96 • 97 • 98

European roads

European roads in Poland
E28 • E30 • E36 • E40 • E65 • E67 • E75 • E77 • E261 • E371 • E372 • E373 • E462

Ecoducts

As of January 2014, Poland had 71 wildlife crossings on A and S roads. In addition, there are numerous underpasses for game. In particular, the A2 in western Poland has a large number of ecoducts in succession. Ecoducts occur on both new and older highways, but are more common on new routes. The ecoducts vary from two-tube short tunnels to single concrete spans to narrow bridges to a wider bridge combined with a local road or dirt road.

Tunnels

A list of the longest tunnels in Poland.

Name away Length Opening
Tunnel Ursynow 2330 m 2021
Tunnel TS-26 2300 m 2023
Tunnel T-1 2263 m 2025
Tunnel Luboń 2058 m 2022
Tunnel under the Świna 1440 m 2023
Tunnel under the Martwa Wisła 1378 m 2016

Design requirements & construction costs

In Poland there are three types of high-quality roads, the autostrada, the droga ekspresowa and the motorway class GP. The autostrada is always a full-fledged motorway, the droga ekspresowa is sometimes constructed as a single carriageway with oncoming traffic, but this has become very rare since 2010, almost all droga ekspresowa are now constructed as a fully-fledged highway with 2×2 lanes and emergency lanes. The GP road class varies more, some of these roads are almost identical to the droga ekspresowa, while they can also be built single-lane and only semi-level.

The cost of building these roads varies relatively widely. Because the autostrada has very strict design requirements, it is almost never constructed in hilly or mountainous areas, so that the expensive routes with tunnels are often a droga ekspresowa. This explains why the construction costs of a droga ekspresowa are often higher than that of an autostrada. The degree of nodes and connections also plays a role. The droga ekspresowa usually has more connections than an autostrada.

The average construction costs per kilometer in the period 2018-2020 were:

Type 2018 2019 2020
Highway 37.3 million z 23.0 mln z 34.4 million z
droga ekspresowa 37.3 million z 51.9 million z PLN 46.8 million
Motorway class GP 25.0 million z 19.9 million z 44.3 million z

Exit numbering

Exit numbering by distance was previously used in Poland, although quite a lot of motorways that were opened after 2000 had no signposted exit numbering at all. From 2013, experiments have been carried out with the introduction of sequential exit numbering, as the first on the A1 north of Łódź. The new exit numbering will be definitively adopted in 2020, whereby a national system of sequential exit numbering has been chosen. At that time, the official exit names were also determined. Two ring roads also have R numbers as exit numbers, this occurs on the Warsaw and Kraków ring road.

Road numbering

Poland has integrated road numbering of droga krajowa (national roads). These national roads can be developed as motorway (A), express road (S) or regular main road (DK). The main routes of the DK1 to DK9 form a grid, odd numbers run north-south and even numbers run east-west. The higher numbers are somewhat zoned and clustered, but not very consistent.

The basic premise is that the autostrada will be constructed over a new route, with the DK road continuing to exist, while a droga ekspresowa will replace a DK road, even though these roads are often constructed over a new route. The DK numbers 1 to 9 that are replaced by an autostrada then get a 9 in front of it, the DK1 then becomes the DK91 when the parallel A1 is ready. For example, the entire DK1, DK2 and DK4 have been replaced by the DK91, DK92 and DK94. If a droga ekspresowa is built, the old road is transferred to a lower government, in many cases a municipality or województwa (province). The road will then be given a DW number or no signposted number.

The droga wojewódzka form the second layer of road numbering. These are roads managed by provinces (województwo) and numbered in a national system with numbers from 100 to 999.

Other road number layers such as district roads (droga powiatowa) and municipal roads (droga gminna) are administratively numbered, but not signposted.

Signage

The signage is on the motorways on blue signs and on the secondary road network on green signs, including on the S-roads. A and S number are prefixed, DK and DW numbers are not. A, S and DK roads have red shields, DW roads have yellow shields. At exits on motorways, blue signs are used for the pre-announcement with the information regarding the exit in an internal green area. The straight-ahead targets are on the blue surface. At the exits, a speed sign is often placed in the exit fork. The number of electronic signs is increasing rapidly and is comparable to what one sees above the highways in France. Nodes are announced by a node symbol with the node name.

The signage is generally clear. For domestic destinations, the target choice is usually limited to large cities in the long distance. For example, it is not uncommon for larger cities to be indicated on the underlying road network several hundred kilometers in advance. Poland is very reluctant to declare foreign destinations. Often reference is made to Polish border towns, which in many cases have only a few hundred inhabitants and are only on detailed maps. These targets are accompanied by country codes, for example PL/D. In Poland, a remote focal point is oftenused, this is usually the far end of the highway. For example, just after the border with Germany, the border village on the Ukrainian or Belarusian border is already indicated, for example Korczowa on the A4 and Terespol on the A2. The other targets on the signage are predictable large cities. The furthest targets are not always indicated consistently. For example, Praha (Prague) on the DK3 is already signposted 610 kilometers in advance at Świnoujście, but is not repeated further on the DK3. The E-numbering is usually well indicated. The use of road numbers is also consistent.

Speed ​​limits

The complex speed limit sign at the Polish border.

The maximum speed in built-up areas is 50 km/h. Outside the basin, 90 km/h applies to passenger cars and 70 km/h to trucks on single-lane roads, although in practice no truck driver adheres to this. On suburban main roads with 2×2 lanes and motorways, 100 km/h applies. The maximum speed for trucks is then 80 km/h. At drogi ekspresowe with 2×2 lanes, which in practice often look the same as the highways, 120 km/h applies. 140 km/h applies on the autostrady. Buses with a permit are then allowed to reach 100 km/h, otherwise 80 km/h.

As of 1 January 2011, the speed limits on autostrady have been increased from 130 to 140 km/h and on 2×2 drogi ekspresowe from 110 to 120 km/h. 110 km/h still applies on 1×2 drogi ekspresowe. Before 1 June 2021, people were allowed to drive 60 km/h within the basin between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.

Road type Vmax
, if 2×2:
, if 2×2:

Road safety

Year Road fatalities
2010 3.907
2011 4.189
2012 3.571
2013 3.357
2014 3.202
2015 2,938
2016 3.026
2017 2,831
2018 2,862
2019 2.909
2020 2.491

Road safety is improving rapidly in Poland, the number of road deaths is decreasing by more than 10% every year. At dangerous points where many fatal accidents take place, large signs with “Czarny Punkt” (black spot) are placed and possibly accompanied by a sign stating the number of victims. In 2004, 5,700 people died in traffic accidents, in 2009 this had fallen to about 4,600 deaths, 3,900 deaths in 2010 and 2,824 deaths in 2015. It is expected that with the opening of new highways the number of road deaths will decrease, as in Spain happened. Many single lane roads are very busy with heavy truck traffic and many head-on collisions. Another active program to improve road safety is the large-scale construction of bypasses (obwodnica) around villages and towns. Most of these are single lane, but often grade separated and sometimes with 2×2 lanes.

In 2010, there were 102 road deaths per 1 million inhabitants in Poland, a decrease of 29 percent compared to 2001. This makes the country one of the least safe in the European Union, which can be explained by the lack of motorways and other high-quality and safe roads. In 2015, there were 77 road deaths per 1 million inhabitants, making the country significantly above the EU average, but no longer one of the least safe countries.

The number of road deaths per 1 million inhabitants halved between 2000 and 2015. The number of road deaths per 1 billion vehicle kilometers is among the highest in the European Union, but that year no such data was available for 8 countries, including all countries with a higher number of road deaths per 1 million inhabitants than Poland.

Toll

A toll station on the A4 near Mysłowice.

A number of Polish highways have to pay tolls, such as the A1, A2 and A4. In the future, this system must be introduced on all A-roads. Drivers of passenger cars can optionally use the electronic toll system e-TOLL.

For trucks there is a separate mandatory electronic toll collection with e-TOLL. The truck toll applies to all A, S and DK roads. Previously, the karty opłat drogowych was used, a toll card that was mandatory for all DK, S and A roads. This system was replaced on 1 July 2011 by the electronic toll system ViaTOLL, which in turn was replaced by the e-TOLL system in June 2021.

Traffic intensities

Road freight transport in Poland.

Traffic intensities are still relatively low outside the major cities, but traffic is increasing rapidly. On the DK roads, 15,000 to 25,000 vehicles on the major transport axes are not uncommon. These will be replaced with priority by highways. Most other DK roads have between 10,000 and 15,000 vehicles, with peaks in urban areas. Some quiet DK roads handle less than 5,000 vehicles per day, but this is mainly in the periphery of Poland.

Traffic intensities are higher on motorways. Between the major cities, there are usually 20,000 to 40,000 vehicles per day, rising to 60,000 to 100,000 vehicles in the urban areas. The traffic intensities are not known for all highway-like (class GP) roads in Poland, because they are not managed by the GDDKiA.

History

The first major traffic census in Poland was held in 1926. Traffic was counted on the then small network of asphalted roads. In 1954, the first traffic census after the Second World War was held, on a limited number of roads. There was still war damage in many places, especially at river bridges. Since 1965, traffic counts have been systematically taken every 5 years, over a period of 14 days. Due to a lack of money, the counting period was temporarily reduced to 9 days in 1985. Since 2010, traffic data has been automatically registered on a larger scale, with counter loops in the road surface and cameras. The network of automatic counting stations was expanded considerably in 2015.

Registration

In Poland, three distinct seasons are used:

  • Yearly Average: Średni Dobowy Ruch Roczny (SDRR)
  • Summer average: Średni Dobowy Ruch Letni (SDRL)
  • Winter average: Średni Dobowy Ruch Zimowy (SDRZ)

A distinction is also made between the time period (day, evening, night), traffic growth and the composition of traffic in different classes.

Poland Road Network