Peru in the 1930’s

By | December 21, 2021

After the border issues with Colombia were resolved through the agreement of May 1934 (Buenos Aires protocol), which recognized Colombia as the city of Leticia, there were still disputes with Ecuador, again for border issues: however, on 12 March 1936 an agreement was signed between the two governments, for the appointment of a joint commission charged with drawing up a plan for the precise delimitation of the borders in the Zarumilla region. With Bolivia, Peru entered into a treaty of friendship and non-aggression on 9 November 1936.

In domestic politics, after the presidential powers of General Oscar R. Benavides, who had assumed power in April 1933, were extended for three years on 15 November 1936, there was, in the last decade of the same year, a plot between revolutionary elements to overthrow the government: a plot that was immediately discovered and repressed.

Finance. – We give below the figures, in millions of soles, of the balance sheets since 1932.

As of June 30, 1937, the external debt was 484.8 million soles and the internal debt was 234.9 million (72.5 of which consolidated).

After the solution of the conflict with Colombia (May 1934) the sol consolidated (in March 1938, 100 soles = $ 1,245) and the situation improved. In March 1935, the 1931 Banking Act was revised.

As of December 31, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 964 million and the reserve to 47 in gold and 21 in foreign exchange.

Besides Banco Central, the main credit institutions are Banco italiano-Lima (1889) and Banco internacional del Perù (1897).

Merchant Navy. – The merchant navy consists of 30 ships for 37.198 tons. gross; all or almost all with steam.

Navy. – It includes two new destroyers: 1 (Almirante Guisse) bought in 1933 from Estonia, built in 1915 in Russia, of 1500 tons. and 27 knots, armed with 5/100, 3 triple 450 launch tubes, capable of carrying 80 torpedoes; 1 (Almirante Villar), bought in 1933 from Estonia, built in 1916 in Russia, from 1300 tons. and 27 knots, armed with 4/100, 3 triple 450 tubes, capable of carrying 80 torpedoes. For Peru defense and foreign policy, please check

History. – From various data and references, it can be deduced with certainty that the work of D. is somehow present in the distant Peru since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, that is, from the time of the Spanish conquest and colonization. A complete and documented reconstruction of this presence, undoubtedly curious and interesting, is found in the essay DA en el Perú, by Estuardo Núñez. Among the books that arrived in Lima in the years 1549 and 1583, in addition to those of classical Latin and Greek authors, a “Dante poeta comentado en italiano” also appears in the lists. Quotes by D. can be found in a Toledan chronicler who in 1571, writing in Cuzco on the wars and tyrannies of the Incas, deals with the journey of Ulysses to Atlantis and alludes to “Dante Alighieri, the illustrious Florentine poet”; in Diego de Ávalos y Figueroa’s Miscelánea Austral, published in Lima in 1602; and in the Discurso en loor de la poesía (1602) by an anonymous author, where we read these verses referring to Antonio Falcón, the praised poet of the time and director of the “Academia Antártica” of Lima (founded in 1580): “Ya el cult Tasso, ya el oscuro Dante / tienen imitador en tí “. This last quotation, accompanied by other clues and documents, such as the use of Dante’s triplet and the description of Paradise that appears in Diego Mejía de Fernangil’s Segunda Parte del Parnaso Antártico (1608), shows that the ‛cult ‘of D. it was widespread in the “Academia Antártica”. Moreover, in the library of the most important writer of the time, the half-caste Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1612), chronicler and historian of Renaissance structure and neoplatonic writer, all the works of Dante are included. So that it can be said that D.’s influence had come and had affirmed itself in Peru’s colonial letters on the wave of a large and perhaps undifferentiated Italian Renaissance influence, and of this the juxtaposition between the “cult Tasso “and the” obscure Dante “of the aforementioned verses.

Later, in the second half of the century. XIX, Peruvian Dante goes to a new phase: the version, in triplets of hendecasyllables, of c. III of Hell undertaken by the romantic poet Nicolàs Corpancho (1830-1863). The discreet translation of Corpancho (published partially in the weekly “El Progreso” of Lima in April 1850) is an early work and is the first to appear in Spanish-speaking America: it precedes that of the Peruvian Spanish Juan de la Pezuela by 15 years. y Ceballos and nearly 50 years old that of the Argentine Bartolomé Miter.

Leaving aside some other partial translations of D.’s works and other scattered quotations from his poetry, the third phase of Peruvian Dante, certainly the least important, is that which corresponds to subsequent Dante studies, mostly of a didactic, if not strictly scholastic, character.. To this sector belong the work of Lamberto Avolio, Flor de Florencia. Guía al estudio de la DC (Lima 1944; 1956 4); the choice and publication of some passages from the book by Guido Vitali, Scenes and figures of DC, undertaken by Siro Simoni (ibid. 1947); a lecture by Ettore Janni, entitled El mundo de Dante, later reunited in the volume Tres conferencias en Lima, with a preface by J. Basadre (ibid. 1951); some essays on ‛Lectura Dantis’ performed at the University of San Marcos in Lima by Bruno Roselli in the years 1954-56; and the articles printed in the weekly “La Industria” by Piura, by Luis Ginocchio on various aspects of the Comedy (1957-1962).

Peru Navy