The pre-Hispanic cultures
Clay city by Chan Chan
Head of a deity anchored in the wall
According to dentistrymyth, Peru and Bolivia are considered the cradle of the pre-Columbian civilizations in South America. Long before the Inca, the first high cultures developed here. The Holy City of Caral, which was only discovered in 1999 in the Supe Valley north of Lima, is considered the oldest urban civilization in America. Finds there could date to the year 2627 BC. To be dated. Around 850 BC The Chavín culture arose in the mountains near Huaraz: The exposed stone temple is a gloomy labyrinth dedicated to a predatory deity. A little later, the people of the Paracas culture lived on the south coast of Peru(550 BC to 100 AD); At that time they had already mastered every embroidery, knotting and stitching technique still used today. Soon the Nazca culture developed in the neighborhood. With the Mochica culture on the north coast (approx. 100 BC-800 AD), it is one of the first complex civilizations in today’s Peru. The building material of the Moche was the unfired adobe brick. Around 500 and 600 on the Bolivian shores of Lake Titicaca and near today’s Ayacucho in Peru, the first large empires with cities made of stone blossom: Tiwanaku (Spanish: Tiahuanaco) and Wari(span. Huari). The Wari knew many techniques that were later adopted by the Inca, including keeping statistics using knots in colored cords. Periods of drought probably ended their predominance. Around 900 the Moche culture grew into the kingdom of the Chimú. When their capital Chan Chan (near Trujillo) was in full bloom with around 100,000 residents, the Inca were still a small tribal principality in the highlands. It was not until the 15th century that they defeated the Chimú.
The Inca Empire emerged around 1200 AD and ended in 1532 with the capture of the last Inca ruler Atahualpa by the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro in Cajamarca. In its heyday, the Inca empire stretched over 5000 km and stretched from Pasto in present-day Colombia to the Maule River in Chile. The Inca Empire was a high culture that optimally adapted agriculture to the geographical, topographical and climatic conditions. It ensured self-sufficiency for the population, provided roads to the various areas of the country and had an effective administrative system. Their monumental buildings – erected without bikes, wagons or draft animals – and their perfect handicrafts still fascinate people from all over the world.
From Spanish colonial rule to a republic
The declaration of independence by San Martin
Peru was ruled for almost 300 years by Spanish vice kings who were primarily interested in the exploitation of precious metals. The following decades were marked by the decline of the Inca system. The Indian population was decimated: their number fell from around 15 million to around 800,000. In the following years Lima was developed into one of the most important cities in America and called the City of Kings.
In the 18th century there were Indian revolts under the leadership of Tupac Amaru, which were brutally suppressed by Spanish troops. The Napoleonic occupation of the Iberian Peninsula weakened Spain’s rule in the colonies. The first independence movements begin in Venezuela and Argentina at the beginning of the 19th century. Peru is the last country in South America to be liberated from Spanish colonial rule by José de San Martín and Simón Bolivar.
The Peruvian Republic
The beginnings of the Peruvian Republic are marked by instability and “caudillismo” until Ramón Castilla (1844-1863) succeeded in consolidating the Peruvian state. During the republic there were several periods of dictatorship: that of Augusto B. Leguía (1919-1930), the military dictatorship of Manuel A. Odría (1948-1956) and the revolutionary military government (1968-1980). The (relatively) democratic periods were short. It was only with the democratization of speech from 1980 that a permanent democratic period set in.
During this period, on the one hand, the emergence of the guerrilla movement of the Shining Path, which determined the development of Peru for more than a decade (1980-1992) and, on the other hand, the authoritarian government of Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) should be mentioned.
In the last four decades, Peru has seen a very eventful development. Since the terrorist movements were defeated and the main people responsible for the human rights violations, Vladimiro Montesinos and Alberto Fujimori, were imprisoned and prosecuted, the country has slowly returned to normal political conditions. This stabilization was called into question by Kuczynski’s pardon for Fujimori on the eve of Christmas 2017, caused harsh criticism at home and abroad and was even investigated by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (CIDH). This led to the withdrawal of the pardon. He stayed in the hospital for over 3 months, now he has to go back to the hospital Prison.