Peru Demographics 2014

By | December 21, 2021

Demography and economic geography. – State of South America. The high ethnic fragmentation that distinguishes Peru (30,769,077 residents, According to an estimate by UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, of 2014) still represents an obstacle to the consolidation of the state and that of integration remains a complex problem, made more marked by the unequal distribution of the benefits linked to the country’s development. The main group is that of Amerindians (45%), followed by mestizos (31.9%), whites (15%), blacks, Japanese, Chinese and others. Urban and coastal communities have benefited more from recent economic growth than rural communities and populations in the Amazon and mountainous regions. In the last decade, the average poverty rate has dropped (28% in 2013), although it remains high in the most disadvantaged areas, where it affects 55% of the residents. The rate of malnutrition has also decreased since the government introduced a series of measures to improve sanitation. The share of school enrollment has risen, but the level of dropout is high: more than a quarter of Peruvian children leave school to help support families, working in construction sites, mines and coca fields. One third of the total population and half of the wealth produced are concentrated in the capital, Lima. Over the past decade, over 2 million Peruvians have emigrated, mostly heading to the United States, Spain and Argentina.

Economic conditions. – The country is growing at a rapid pace (5.6% per year in the period 2008-2013), thanks to mining, fishing, construction and trade; however, dependence on international demand, in particular from China, on the price trend of exported raw materials and on the lack of adequate infrastructure development remains strong. Other weaknesses of the Peruvian economy are corruption, lack of skilled labor, social conflicts and the strong presence of an informal economy. As regards the various production sectors, agriculture continues to present the classic distinction between commercial crops destined for export (cotton, sugar cane, rice, fruit, coffee) and widespread above all in the coastal area, and crops destined for self-consumption. (wheat, corn, barley, potatoes), however, insufficient to meet national needs. Mineral resources are abundant and diversified and the government has entered into agreements with foreign companies for their exploration. Peru is the third world producer of silver (3,500 t in 2013) and copper (1,300,000 t); followed by iron, zinc, lead, tin and gold (150,000 kg). In terms of energy, it is largely dependent on oil, whose production, despite having grown considerably (3.1 million tonnes), is currently unable to guarantee internal self-sufficiency. tin and gold (150,000 kg). In terms of energy, it is largely dependent on oil, whose production, despite having grown considerably (3.1 million tonnes), is currently unable to guarantee internal self-sufficiency. tin and gold (150,000 kg). In terms of energy, it is largely dependent on oil, whose production, despite having grown considerably (3.1 million tonnes), is currently unable to guarantee internal self-sufficiency. For Peru 2018, please check ethnicityology.com.

Architecture. – Although the high rate of poverty of the population is still at the origin of severe social conflicts, the economy of the Peru, significantly growing, has undoubtedly favored the construction industry of the country, particularly in the capital Lima. Many new residential and office towers, commercial buildings and even second homes for the emerging bourgeoisie. Among the latter, by way of example only, we remember the house of Javier Artadi (2003-04) on the beach of Las Arenas, about 100 km from Lima, and the house in Palabritas (2009), also overlooking the ocean., by José Orrego.

Among the not a few prominent personalities in the Peruvian architectural panorama, authors of internationally recognized projects, we note: Enrique Ciriani (b.1936), who in 2009 returned from France, where he had successfully exercised his profession since 1964, and is established in Lima where he teaches at the UPC (Universidad Peruana de Ciencias aplicadas); Juan Carlos Doblado (b. 1963), winner, in 2012, of four prizes at the XV Biennial of Peruvian architecture and, since 2010, director of TECTURA, Congreso internacional de arquitectura latinoamericana; Mario Lara who in Lima, where he lives and works, has designed a large number of residential buildings; Bernardo Fort-Brescia (b.1951), one of the best known Peruvian architects, founder of the American studio Arquitectonica, based in Miami, which operates successfully internationally. Arquitectonica, for example, is responsible for the headquarters of the HSBC (Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation), the tallest building of the Peru, built in Lima in 2013. Among the most recent and significant works we should still remember: the MAPFRE (2014) multifunctional complex of TSM Asociados in Independencia, which includes offices, a medical center, a chapel and a cemetery; the building that houses the engineering and science classrooms of the PUCP (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, 2014) in Lima, by Llosa Cortegana Arquitectos; the LVC school (2013) by Nómena + Patricio Bryce in the coastal area of ​​Chorrillos, in Lima, white and essential; the school in Chuquibambilla (2013), at an altitude of over 3000 m in the isolated southern province of Grau, built by the AMA studio (Alfonso Maccaglia Architecture), and Bosch Arquitectos, a simple and colorful wooden building characterized by elementary and participatory construction techniques; the CQ Project apartment building (2013), by the JSª studio in Lima, in the suburb of Miraflores, one of the most prestigious and panoramic in the surroundings of the capital.

Finally, the daring reconversion of the historic building designed by Emilio Harth-Terré, seat of the Escuela de arte Corriente alternna (2012), and the Lugar de la memoria memorial, a complex inaugurated in 2015: these are two successful works, both in the aforementioned Miraflores, from the Barclay & Crousse studio, whose owners, trained in France, continue to have an office in Paris.

Peru 2018