Arts and Culture
The indigenous cultures of Peru are rich and diverse, but often obscure and hide their expressions. The word “Indio” is negative because it is associated with serfdom, forced labor, abuse and inferiority. When indigenous peoples migrate to the outskirts of large cities, the process of “cholificación” begins immediately, the adaptation to white culture (language, food, clothing). Because the phrase “the whiter the more influential” still applies. Nonetheless, these migrants set up provincial clubs, mostly with the names of their places of origin or a feature of the landscape (such as Brisas del Titicaca instead of Aymara Club). Only then does the cultural identity live with the cultivation of cultural forms of expression (dance,
In the 1930’s, the ” Indigenismo ” movement emerged, which turned against the discrimination of the indigenous people. An important representative of this movement was the well-known anthropologist, proponent of the Quechua language and accuser of the feudal system, José María Arguedas. In his story “Dream of an Indio Boy” (English version) he expresses the situation of the exploitation of the indigenous people in the feudal system of large landowners in the Andean highlands. The important representative of political indigenism is José Carlos Mariátegui, who saw a change in the situation of the indigenous people only in the context of a comprehensive political change.
Peru is a country located in South America according to zipcodesexplorer. The culture of Peru in the 20th century is otherwise shaped by the culture of the whites and the bourgeoisie. Indigenous artists, such as the photographer from Cuzco Martin Chambi, who achieved worldwide fame with his social documentary images, are a clear exception.
The most famous representatives of contemporary Peruvian literature include the poet César Vallejo, as well as the writers Mario Vargas Llosa and Alfredo Bryce Echenique, whose debut work Eine Welt für Julius, written in 1970, was only published in German in 2002. The 74-year-old Vargas Llosa was surprisingly awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Literatureawarded for his extensive and constant literary output. In the explanation of the Swedish Nobel Prize Academy it is stated that Vargas received this award for his “cartographies of power structures and his biting images of resistance, revolt and defeat of the individual”. Vargas Llosa is not just a book author, he has always remained a political person. At the end of the 1980’s, he led the protests against the nationalization of the banking sector by Alan García, founded the Libertad movement and ran for the presidency of Peru in 1990. The then unknown Fujimori became president after a runoff election. Disappointed, the man of letters withdrew from active politics. But soon he took over a column in the prestigious Spanish newspaper El País, in which he regularly writes essays on current political issues. As a principled neoliberal, he brought down an amnesty law by A. García a few years ago.
The treasures of the pre-Hispanic cultures, which can be seen in the Larco Herrera, Pachacamac and Sipán museums, are still of great importance to Peru. Particularly noteworthy is the textile art of the pre-Inca cultures Moche, Chimu, Nasca and Lambayeque. At the most important art fair in the world, Art Basel, painted pictures of ceramics from pre-Hispanic cultures by the artist Sandra Gamarra were exhibited in June 2018.
The Peruvian film is known beyond its borders. Francisco Lombardi’s films, who deal with socially critical issues in his country, have won several awards at international film festivals. “The Captain and his Women’s Battalion”, based on a novel by Vargas Llosa, was presented at the Berlinade. The young Peruvian filmmaker Claudia Llosa caused a sensation in Peru with her film “Madeinusa”. At the Berlinale 2009 she received the golden bear for the best film ” La teta asustada ” (A Pearl Eternity).
Javier Corcuera’s documentary ” Sigo siendo ” about the history and diversity of Peruvian music is causing a sensation in Peru and at film festivals around the world.
The visual arts teacher Fátima Foronda brings color and happiness to the slums of Lima. Children in particular become artists and paint the outside walls of their houses. Now Fátima wants to use the typical altarpieces (retablos) of this region as motifs for the houses in the city of Huancayocc (hit by terror in the 80’s).
Peru Textiles 2
Pintura Sandra Gamarra
Music and dance
The well-known tenor Juan Carreras maintains several sites on his website about the Peruvian tenor Juan Diego Florez, who is one of the most popular tenors in the world. He founded the organization “Sinfonía por el Perú”, based on the Venezuelan project of José Antonio Abreu, to bring music closer to the disadvantaged and poor children of Peru. In the meantime, well over 3000 children and young people in 12 centers have benefited from this initiative nationally.
If you feel like studying the eclectic variety of Peruvian music, visit the website “música peruana”, where you can enjoy Peruvian waltzes, Andean “huaynos” or Afro-Peruvian rhythms. From the Afro-Peruvian culture, one of their instruments, the “cajón”, has made it famous. There is hardly a flamenco group that does not use this instrument. The research and information center on Peruvian folklore CIDAN Perú informs about the dances of the different regions.
The ballet dancer Vania Masías has left classical dance and is dedicated to training and working with young people from disadvantaged sectors. In the cultural association “D1 Asociación cultural” young people are offered an alternative life. More than 170,000 young people have benefited directly from it. She is featured in the list of 49 Most Innovative Peruvians of All Time. Vania recently hit the headlines again when she led the physical exercises ahead of the weekly ministerial meeting in Lima.