|Population||31.23 million (2017)|
|Language||official languages Spanish, Quechua, Aymara|
|Religion||76.9% Roman Catholic, 14.1% Evangelical|
|State system||presidential republic|
|Head of State||Pedro Castillo|
|Head of government||Anibal Torres Vasquez|
|Time shift||-6 hours (in summer -7 hours)|
|Nominal GDP (billion USD)||448.4|
|Economic growth (%)||13.4|
Peru is a presidential republic. The presidential mandate lasts 5 years. The President can be re-elected, but not for 2 consecutive terms.
Legislative power is exercised by the 130-member National Congress of Peru. Deputies are elected for 5 years. The last election took place on April 11, 2021.
The situation on world markets in 2021 had a favorable impact on the Peruvian economy. Economic activity increased by 13.4% compared to the same period in 2020. Growth was driven by non-primary sectors. In recent months, there has been a reduction in the rate of growth, which will mainly be a reflection of businessmen’s lack of confidence in the course set by the current government.
The continued vaccination (including the third, strengthening dose) had a positive effect on the economic recovery, at the same time, the possible arrival of another wave of the Covid-19 pandemic is a big unknown. The normalization of “spending habits” and the relaxation of anti-pandemic measures should give impetus to the secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors and contribute to the creation of new jobs. This should be reflected in GDP growth of 3.4% in 2022 and 3.2% in 2023.
The trade balance ended with a surplus of USD 14.800 billion. The reason is the favorable prices of metal ores (copper, zinc, gold) on world markets. Exports accounted for 28.1% of GDP. A surplus of USD 16.395 billion is expected for 2022, and even USD 17.847 billion for 2023.
The most promising fields for the entry of Czech companies are: healthcare, mining industry, infrastructure, energy, ICT.
Spanish is still preferred over English. Although the measures related to Covid-19 are gradually being relaxed, many state offices are still working as during the pandemic. This, for example, slows down the acquisition of various permits and registrations.
Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The Republic of Peru (República del Perú) is a presidential republic. The president is elected for 5 years, without the possibility of immediate re-election. The last presidential election took place in April 2021.
On April 11, 2021, the first round of presidential and parliamentary elections took place. The second round of presidential elections took place on June 6, 2021. Pedro Castillo (extremely left-wing Perú Libre) and Keiko Fujimori (right-wing Fuerza Popular) competed for the presidency. The first round of the election showed significant differences – Lima supported completely different candidates, the traditionally neglected countryside supports a candidate often associated with the terrorist organization Light Path, and a progressive representative of the right is being prosecuted for corruption and faces a high penalty. President Castillo won by a margin of just 0.25%. The winner of the election was the political party Perú Libre. Members of the 130-member Congress were elected from 27 constituencies. To enter the Congress, at least 5% of the vote must be obtained, which is exceeded by 10 parties. The Perú Libre party won the most deputies (37). Check diseaseslearning to learn more about Peru political system.
Current composition of the government: Prime Minister – Aníbal Torres Vásquez, Minister of Foreign Affairs – César Rodrigo Landa Arroyo, Minister of Defense – José Luis Gavidia Arrascue, Minister of Economy and Finance – Oscar Miguel Graham Yamahuchi, Minister of the Interior – Alfonso Gilberto Chávarry Estrada, Minister of Justice and Human Rights of Rights – Angel Fernando Yldefonso Narro, Minister of Education – Rosendo Leoncio Serna Román, Minister of Health – Hernán Yury Condori Machado, Minister of Agricultural Development and Irrigation – Oscar Zea Choquechambi, Minister of Labor and Employment Support – Betssy Betzabet Chavez Chino, Minister of Production – Jorge Luis Prado Palomino, Minister of Foreign Trade and Tourism – Roberto Helbert Sánchez Palomino, Minister of Energy and Mines – Carlos Sabino Palacios Pérez, Minister of Transport and Communications – Nicolás Bustamante Coronado, Minister of Housing,construction and waste management – Geiner Alvarado López, Minister of Women and Vulnerable Populations – Diana Mirian Miloslavich Tupac, Minister of the Environment – Modesto Edilberto Montoya Zavaleta, Minister of Culture – Alejandro Antonio Salas Zegarra, Minister of Development and Social Inclusion – Dina Ercilia Boluarte Zegarra.
The president fails to put together a quality team and really be the president of all Peruvians. Since he came to power at the end of July 2021, the country already has a fourth prime minister. A stable environment for the development of the economy is not created even by the statements of the head of state about nationalization or fairer valuation of the work of Peruvian employees.
Foreign policy of the country
The country’s foreign policy corresponds to long-term interests and extends beyond the period of 1 government. It defines 4 strategic goals: 1. to strengthen the country’s position on a regional and global scale as an important regional player on a bilateral and multilateral level; 2. to contribute to increasing the competitiveness and image of Peru abroad through the promotion of economic and cultural presentation and the protection of cultural heritage; 3. protect the rights of Peruvian citizens abroad and strengthen their connection with Peru, support their adaptation abroad; 4. to create, expand and strengthen mutual international cooperation and association within the region and at the global level in order to promote sustainable and inclusive development of the country. Peru’s priority is the development of relations within Latin America and especially with its neighbors (regular joint bilateral meetings of governments). The predominant themes are the Pacific Alliance, The Lima Group and Venezuela. As part of strengthening Peru’s position in the world, it has concluded strategic partnership agreements with Spain, China, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, Russia and France. Peru wants to become a member of the OECD, with which it has a convergence agreement. Accession negotiations began at the beginning of 2022. Check themotorcyclers for Peru defense and foreign policy.
With 3million inhabitants, Peru is the fifth most populous country in Latin America. The population density is 25.79 inhabitants/km2. 55.9% of the population lives on the coast, 29.6% in mountainous areas and 14.5% in forested areas. 53.11% of the population is economically active. The capital and largest city is Lima with 9.78 million inhabitants, followed by Callao with 1.13 million inhabitants, Arequipa with 1.12 million inhabitants, Trujillo with 1.08 million inhabitants, Chiclayo with 0, 60 million rev., Puira with 0.54 million rev., Huancayo with 0.53 million rev., Cuzco with 0.51 million rev., Iquitos with 0.44 million rev. and Pucallpa with 0.40 million ob. As for the ethnic composition of the population, 60.2% are half-breeds, 25.8% indigenous, 6% Europeans. Emigration has increased in recent years, approx. 1.51 million Peruvians live abroad, most in the USA (approx. 525 thousand), followed by Chile (approx. 205 thousand) and Argentina (approx. 198 thousand).
76.9% of the population is Roman Catholic, 14.1% Evangelical.