Peru Armed Forces and Public Finance

By | December 21, 2021

Army. – Peru has a standing conscript army of balanced strength of about 1100 officers and 8000 non-commissioned officers and enlisted men.

The territory is divided into 5 military regions, each manned by a division. Of the 5 divisions, 4 are located at the borders (Equatorian, Bolivian, Chilean, Brazilian), 1 in the capital region.

The army includes: troops (8 regiments, a mounted company, infantry; 5 cavalry regiments; 5 regiments, 1 anti-aircraft battery, artillery; 4 engineering battalions; ground aviation squadrons); services (artillery, engineering, aeronautics, administration and transport, health, horse racing and veterinary, military, geographic, regional justice, connections); schools (of high military studies, superior of war, of genius, of recruiting officers, non-commissioned officers, special for connections and automatic weapons, aviation).

Military service is compulsory, from 21 to 50 years of age (3 to 4 years in the active army; 6 to 7 years in the 1st reserve; 5 years in the 2nd reserve; the remaining years, in the national guard). For Peru military, please check

During their stay in the 1st reserve, soldiers can be called up for a maximum total period of 2 months.

In addition to those coming from the active army, the following belong: to the 1st reserve, from the 19th to the 23rd year, those married before the call to arms; to the 2nd reserve, from the 19th to the 35th year, the headmasters of national and municipal schools, the professors holding higher and secondary schools, the self-employed professionals with degrees; to the national guard, from the 19th to the 50th year of age, citizens who exercise certain professions, or who are in certain family conditions.

The soldiers of the National Guard are required only to perform territorial service, limited to the military district to which the unit to which they are assigned belongs.

Marina. – The Peruvian navy, after having had a period of relative splendor in the second half of the century. XIX, is currently composed, with the exception of the submarines, of a few rather antiquated units, namely: 2 protected cruisers, Almirante Grau and Coronel Bolognesi, launched in 1905 and modernized in 1925, of 3200 tons. and 24 knots, armed with 2/152, 8/76 and two launch tubes of 450; 1 destroyer, Teniente Rodríguez, of 490 tons. and 28 knots, armed with 6/47 and two 457 launch tubes; six submarines (RI to R 6), of which 4 built in 1928 in the United States, of 576/682 tons, 14.5-9.5 knots, armed with 4 launch tubes of 533 and 1 piece of 76; a submarine support vessel, La Lima ; three river gunboats, 240-ton America, 60-ton Napo and Iquitos ; plus some smaller units for school and transport use. The personnel of the Peruvian navy are about 2,000 men, between officers and municipalities. The main naval base is Callao; a naval school is in La Punta, near Callao, and a base for submarines on Isola San Lorenzo, in front of Callao.

Aviation. – The military aviation of Peru was established by presidential decree on May 20, 1929. By virtue of this decree, military aviation and hydro-aviation were amalgamated into a single weapon and under a single command. The inspector general of the air force exercises control over the country’s aviation, both military and civil.

The military departments are divided as follows: Aviation Center in Las Palmas: 4th squadron of preliminary training and 5th squadron of advanced training; Naval Air Force Base in Ancón: 1st Preliminary Training Squadron and 2nd Advanced Training Squadron; Mountain Air Force: base in Iquitos, 3rd preliminary training squadron, 1st reconnaissance squadron; Flying schools: Jorge Chavez flying school in Las Palmas, flying school and naval aviation school in Ancón.

Finances. – Budget and public debt (in millions of soles). At 30 June 1932 the public debt amounted to 532.0 million soles, of which 129.6 million of internal debt and 402.4 of external debt, mainly contracted with the United States and Great Britain. In May 1931, Peru suspended the payment of interest and the amortization of the foreign debt, making the recovery conditional on an improvement in the economic situation.

Money and credit. – Since 1931 (law 18 April) the monetary unit is the sol gold, equivalent to one tenth of the pound sterling and theoretically containing (as it is not foreseen for minting) 42.1264 centigrams of fine gold. Since May 18, 1932, Peru has abandoned the gold base by suspending the convertibility of notes into gold.

The Banco Central de Reserva del Perú, established in 1922 (Banco de Reserva del Perú), reorganized according to the opinion of the Kemmerer financial mission in September 1931 and again modified in July 1932, has the privilege of issuing and is obliged to hold a reserve in gold, silver and commercial paper valued at not less than 50% of the amount of notes in circulation and deposits. As of 9 September 1933, notes in circulation amounted to 66.4 million soles, deposits to 17.2 million and the reserve to 52.7 million.

Peru Armed Forces