Pakistan Since the 1990s

By | December 18, 2021

In 1990, President Ghulām Isḥaq Khān resigned the Bhutto government and declared a state of emergency; the subsequent elections were won by the conservative Islamic Democratic Alliance (AID) and the prime minister became M. Nawāz Sharīf. The continuation of the inter-ethnic unrest which was superimposed on the popular protests for the participation of the Pakistan in the war against Iraq led in 1993 to the simultaneous resignations of Ghulām and Nawāz Sharīf; B. Bhutto returned to the leadership of a coalition government and A. Khān Leghari was elected president of the Republic.

In the second half of the 1990s, Fr continued to be affected by repeated episodes of serious political, religious and interethnic violence and by a growing social protest fueled by worsening economic conditions. In 1996 Leghari dismissed B. Bhutto for abuse of power. The 1997 early elections were won by the conservative Pakistan Muslim League – Nawāz group (PML) and the leadership of the executive was summed up by Nawāz Sharīf. In December Leghari resigned and Muḥammad Rafīq Tarar, candidate of the PML, was elected in his place. In the following years the weight of the fundamentalist movements continued to grow and in 1998 the Koran and the Sunna became the supreme law of the state. In the regional context, Fr. it pursued the ambition of creating its own sphere of influence in Central Asia and to this end intensified cultural and commercial ties with the Turkish, Afghan, Iranian and former Soviet republics in the region. In this perspective, it played a dynamic role in the Afghan crisis, providing its military support to the Taliban, of which he was among the first to officially recognize the regime. On the other hand, relations with India remained constantly tense. In 1998 the Indian decision to carry out a series of nuclear tests provoked the immediate reaction of Pakistan, who was preparing to carry out similar experiments. For Pakistan 2004, please check topb2bwebsites.com.

The gravity of the economic situation and the inability of the Sharif government to put a stop to the growing ethnic and political violence offered the military leaders the opportunity to re-impose their supremacy. In 1999 Sharif was ousted in a coup d’état led by General Pakistan Musharraf who, having suspended the Constitution, established a new executive body made up of military and civilians, the National Security Council, of which he assumed the leadership, to which he added in 2001 the office of President of the Republic. After the attacks of 11 September 2001, the president sided with the United States and offered limited use of the air bases to the coalition that was preparing to strike Afghanistan. The new international credit thus acquired allowed him to consolidate his power, despite the wave of anti-Americanism that had swept public opinion and the growing influence of fundamentalist movements and Islamic parties. The political elections of 2002 were won by the pro-government party, but for months it was impossible to start parliamentary work due to the obstruction of the opposition forces against the constitutional changes proposed by Musharraf in order to guarantee full powers to the detriment of the autonomy of Parliament and to sanction the definitive institutionalization of the Armed Forces in the political life. The agreement reached between the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2004 substantially accepted the changes, but imposed a series of formal constraints on presidential decisions; in exchange, Musharraf obtained the consent of the Parliament to extend the presidential mandate to 2007, also maintaining the position of head of the Armed Forces until that date. However, the country remained in a state of constant tension, with growing anti-Western protests and serious episodes of terrorism. but it imposed a series of formal constraints on presidential decisions; in exchange, Musharraf obtained the consent of the Parliament to extend the presidential mandate to 2007, also maintaining the position of head of the Armed Forces until that date. However, the country remained in a state of constant tension, with growing anti-Western protests and serious episodes of terrorism. but it imposed a series of formal constraints on presidential decisions; in exchange, Musharraf obtained the consent of the Parliament to extend the presidential mandate to 2007, also maintaining the position of head of the Armed Forces until that date. However, the country remained in a state of constant tension, with growing anti-Western protests and serious episodes of terrorism.

The 2007 presidential elections opened a serious institutional crisis between Musharraf, re-elected president, and the Supreme Court, which overshadowed his ineligibility. After having proclaimed a state of emergency and had his election validated, placing numerous opponents and political leaders under arrest, Musharraf resigned from the army and announced new laws, but the assassination of B. Bhutto, who had just returned from exile, in the course of the election campaign reinforced concerns about the country’s uncertain future. The elections saw the victory of the PPP and the Muslim League of Nawaz Sharif, and the sharp defeat of the Muslim League of the Pakistan, the political organization formed in 2002 by Musharraf. Head of government became YR Gilani of the PPP. In August 2008, before the government presented the request for impeachment, Musharraf resigned. In September AA Zardari, co-president of the PPP and widower of B. Bhutto was elected president. In 2009, the government first gave the green light to an agreement with the pro-Taliban militias of the north-western regions, on the border with Afghanistan, granting the application of Islamic law in exchange for the definitive abandonment of weapons, then tried to oppose the advanced with a heavy counter-offensive, to which the Taliban responded with a heavy intensification of terrorist activity. In June 2012 Gilani was removed from his post by the Supreme Court because he refused to reopen the international investigation into President Zardari for an alleged case of corruption and the export of illicit funds to Switzerland, and was succeeded by Raja Pervez Ashraf.The legislative elections of May 2013 recorded a turnout never so high in the history of the country (over 60% of those entitled), despite the clashes and violent attacks that took place during the same. In the elections the PML was the winner with the leader Sharif, who for the third time assumed the role of prime minister relying on a solid majority in the lower house, where it holds 190 seats out of 342 available, while in the elections for the renewal of a third of the Senate, in March 2015, the PML managed to steal many votes from the rival PPP, which nevertheless still holds the majority, even if only for one seat. In July 2017,after the verdict of the Supreme Court which decided the perpetual ban from public office following the accusations of corruption against his family in the investigation into the Panama Papers, Prime Minister Sharif was removed from office. The general elections held in July 2018 in a climate of strong tensions sanctioned the victory of the centrist Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf party which obtained 115 out of 270 seats in Parliament and whose founder, I. Khan, was appointed premier.

At the presidential elections held in July 2013, the entrepreneur M. Hussain, exponent of the PML, was elected to lead the country, and was succeeded by A. Alvi of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf in September 2018.

After the killing of Osama Bin Laden, which took place on 1 May 2011 near Islāmābad following a blitz by the US military forces, doubts about the possible connivance between Pakistani secret services and terrorist groups have actually led to a significant increase in tensions between the country and the United States.

Pakistan presidential elections