Pakistan Population and Economy in the 1950’s

By | December 18, 2021

Population. – The 1951 census estimated the population of Pakistan (excluding the territories of Āzād Kashmir, Gilgit, Baltistān, Janagadh and Manavadar) at 75,842,135 residents, with a density of 80 residents per km 2. The percentage of males (just over 40 million) appeared to be somewhat higher than that of women. Regarding religion, 85% of the population was Muslim, with a maximum of 98.5% in Belūcistān and a minimum of 76% in East Bengal; the Hindus amounted to about 9,239,000 in the eastern Pakistan, to about 220,000 in the western Pakistan; Christians were 541,000, mainly concentrated in the Panjab (401,000). The foreigners present at the date of the census were 206,669, of which 127,831 Indians. For Pakistan 2016, please check softwareleverage.org.

According to the administrative division then in force, the population was distributed as follows:

The administrative order of 1955 divides the western Pakistan into eleven “divisions” (divisions) and the eastern Pakistan into three, according to the following mirror:

The cities with a census of more than 100,000 residents in 1981 were, in addition to those already indicated in the table, Lyallpur (Panjab) 179,127; Sialkot (Panjab) 167,506; Gujranwala (Panjab) 120,852. On the basis of provisional data from the census office for 1961, the population: of Pakistan is estimated at 93,812,000 residents.

Economy. – In the aftermath of independence, the Pakistan had to make his economic structures as independent as possible from those of the Indian Union, with which they had formed an organic unit; and then to integrate the economies of its two provinces, separated from each other by hundreds of kilometers of foreign territory. Despite having considerable natural wealth and an agricultural production sufficient for the national needs, and despite the huge aid from abroad (USA, World Bank, UN), the first years of life of the new state were of considerable economic hardship, both for the the settling process mentioned above, it has been said, both due to the influx of refugees from India, the imperfect administration, the political instability. It can be said that from this crisis Fr.

The West Pakistan land reform regulation was promulgated on February 7, 1959 under Article 64 of the Martial law regulation. It applies to the whole West Pakistan land commission, including the Karachi area, and primarily provides for the establishment of a West Pakistan land commission.

The regulation therefore considers as null and void the transfers of ownership made after 8 October 1958 (date of the military coup) by anyone who up to that date owned more than 200 hectares of irrigated land or an area equivalent to 36,000 “index units of products. “(the Produce index unit is the comparative average of production of a given area). No one can own more than 200 ha of irrigated area or 100 ha of non-irrigated area, but he can own more than these limits if he does not reach the 36,000 index units of products, which are the maximum of the property granted. Educational institutes and universities are exempt from these limitations and are allowed to own those extra areas necessary for scientific research, as well as those charitable or religious institutions to which the government deems it can grant greater quantities of land. If the public interest so requires, the government can also authorize owners of horse or cattle farms to own a greater extent of land. In addition to the hectares granted to him, each landowner can own an area, not exceeding 150 acres, cultivated as a vegetable garden. THE jagir (from the Persian ǧ a ġ ī r), that is the land, or the relative income, assigned by the state in compensation for services rendered, are abolished and returned to the state. The expropriated lands are destined to constitute small units of peasant property that the assignatars, direct farmers, will have to redeem with payments deferred over 25 years. Expropriations, for which the Regulation fixes the fees, affect approximately 6,000 properties.

The Indo-Pakistani agreement for the sharing of the waters of the Indus basin was reached in Karachi on September 19, 1960 after several years of laborious negotiations.

According to proposals formulated (1954) by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, it assigns to Pakistan the waters of the Indus and the tributaries Jhelum and Chenab, granting India only a partial use, limited to the stretch of these rivers that flow in its territory. The agreement assigns the waters of the Ravi, the Bias, the Satlej to India, but it will not be able to fully enjoy them before the expiry of a transition period of ten years (or at most thirteen) during which the Pakistan replace, with suitable works, the loss of those waters. In other words, the agreement grants Pakistan 80% of the waters of the basin and India the remaining 20%. India will contribute 833 million rupees, equal to 62.5 million pounds, to the expenses for the works to be carried out in Pakistani territory;

An expenditure of 19 billion rupees was foreseen for the implementation of the five-year plan which expires on October 31, 1965. On 31 December 1960 the president of Pakistan, Mohammed Ayyūb Khām, presenting the plan to the nation, indicated the following main objectives: increase in national income by 20% of individual income by 10%; an increase in the production of cereals by more than 20%, thanks to the agrarian reform and the improvement of irrigation; 20% increase in foreign exchange receipts to improve the balance of payments; strengthening of light industry and 50% increase of heavy industry, acceleration of the economic development of the most depressed areas, in particular of the frontier areas of western Pakistan extension to the whole country of Village Aid Organization, where Aid stands for agricultural, industrial development); reorganization and strengthening of the public education system; improvement of medical assistance and the fight against malaria, tuberculosis, cholera, smallpox; definitive settlement of refugees from India; improvement of the conditions of workers and introduction of social security measures; birth control.

For the 1957-58 vintage we have the following data relating to agricultural production (in English tons): rice (processed), 8,461,409; wheat, 3,659,000; corn, 441,858; fodder, 711,000; gur, 12,258,000; rapeseed and mustard, 326,000; in addition: cotton, 1,698,000 bales (in 1948-49 about 989,000 bales; 1 bale = 400 pounds); jute, 5,700,715 bales (about 5,479,095 bales in 1948-49); tea, 54 million pounds (about 41.9 million pounds in 1948-49).

The forest area is 25,540 km 2, of which 11,520 in the eastern Pakistan As for mining production, we have the following data (in English tons) relating to 1957: chromite, 4,000; coal, 516,000; plaster, 62,000; limestone, 1,000,000; oil, 300,000. In August 1959 the Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation announced that it had drawn up a plan for the complete reorganization of the coal mines in West Pakistan A refinery with an annual capacity of 2 million British tons is under construction near Karachi.

Foreign trade. – Among imports, the first place is held by machinery (for 318,000,000 rupees in 1957), iron and steel (for 224,000,000 rupees in 1957), vehicles (for 14,000,000 rupees in 1957) ); followed by mineral oils, manufactured articles and cotton yarns, electrical equipment, fruits and vegetables. The first place among exports is held by raw jute (for 782 million rupees in 1957), raw cotton (for 340 million rupees in 1957) and raw wool (for 103 million rupees in 1957); followed by tea, leather and fish. Exchanges take place mainly with Great Britain and the Commonwealth countries.

Finances. – The most salient features of Pakistani finances in the last decade can be identified in the worsening of the terms of trade and in the monetary expansion mainly due to the continuous repetition of deficits in the state budget. In the presence of a depletion of foreign exchange reserves and an acceleration of the inflationary process, the government has taken as a general directive the elimination of current inflation and the reduction of the state deficit; the Treasury’s appeal to the central bank was also canceled. And this thanks to the greater contribution of foreign aid and credits on which, ultimately, every financial possibility of the country depends. At the same time, the system of restrictions on the

On the other hand, a new system of export incentives was introduced in January 1959: it provides for the automatic allocation of a part of the foreign currency to the exporters themselves (20% for exports of jute and cotton and 40% for other products).

On the occasion of the general devaluation of September 1949, the exchange rate of the rupee did not undergo any change, but in August 1955 it was aligned with other currencies at the level existing before 1949 (in particular with the British pound and the Indian rupee). The current parity with the US dollar is 4,762 rupees.

On January 1, 1961, the metric system officially came into use.

Transport and communications. – Until March 1958 the road network was 112,000 km. In western Pakistan the railway services are managed by the NorthWestern Railway, which has 8446 km of railways, of which 7307 are normal gauge; in eastern Pakistan they are managed by the Eastern Bengal Railway, which has 2724 km of railways, of which 870 are normal gauge. The maritime services refer to the ports of Karachi, Chittagong and Chalna. There are two airlines: the Pakistan International Airlines (since 1953) and the Pakistan Aviation, Ltd. As of December 31, 1958, 63,905 state telephones and 10,165 post and telegraph offices were in operation.

Judicial system. – The jurisdiction of the Judicial Committee of the British Private Council ceased on April 30, 1950. There are two High Courts, one in the West Pakistan (Lahore) and one in the East (Dacca) and a Supreme Court.

Pakistan Transport