Pakistan Population and Archeology

By | December 18, 2021

Area and population. – Territorially shrunk following the split (1971) of the eastern province (today Bangla Desh), the Pakistan currently occupies the north-west area. of the Indian peninsula, surrounded by Afghānistān, Iran, the Soviet Union, China, the Indian Union and the Arabian Sea on an area of ​​803,940 km 2. The population, estimated in 1974, at around 65 million residents, is concentrated for over 55% in the fertile inland valleys of the Panjāb, contrasted to the south-east by the infernal Thar desert, to the north by the western section of the high chains of Himālaya, Caracorum and Hindu Kush, to the west the desolate plains and arid depressions that interrupt the mountainous region of Belūcistān here and there.

The 1962 constitution, on the basis of which the Pakistan was configured as a federal republic with a presidential regime, was replaced by a new constitution, which entered into force in 1973. It attributes a pre-eminent position to the prime minister, head of the executive power, and assigns the legislative function to a bicameral Parliament.

Pakistanis are largely Muslims, with strong Hindu minorities (10,001,474): there is no shortage of Buddhists (376,000), and Christians (732,787). Hindus and Christians have established several primary and secondary schools in the country, also attended by Muslims. For Pakistan society, please check homosociety.com.

Archeology. – The discoveries made first in Mundigak, in Afghānistān, and later in Kile Ghul Mohammad in Balūcistān, have stimulated research in the prehistoric field throughout Pakistan. In Anjira and Siah Damb there is a Neolithic occupation linked to that of Siyalk (Iran), characterized at the beginning by a ceramic with red ingubbing. The adobe buildings of the following phase are reflected in Kile Ghul Mohammad II-III. Then there are other phases to be related to the culture of Quetta (already studied in the 1950s) and of Mundigak IV, when the ceramic has a geometric or naturalistic decoration. JM Casal also excavated the Nindowari site in Balūcistān, whose period of maximum expansion coincides with the use of Kulli-type pottery (animals in a stylized landscape). It was perhaps a religious center, as indicated by the discovery of many terracotta figurines, bulls and mother goddesses, and the presence of a monument served by stairs surrounded by buildings on the same quadrangular platform. This Nindowari phase would be semi-contemporary to the Harappā culture. JM Casal is also responsible for the excavations of Amri (about 300 km NE of Karāchi) and Pirak (in the north of the country). In Amri there are the remains of a prehistoric settlement from the mid-3rd millennium which gave a particular ceramic (Casal is responsible for the excavations of Amri (about 300 km NE of Karāchi) and Pirak (in the north of the country). In Amri there are the remains of a prehistoric settlement from the mid-3rd millennium which gave a particular ceramic (Casal is responsible for the excavations of Amri (about 300 km NE of Karāchi) and Pirak (in the north of the country). In Amri there are the remains of a prehistoric settlement from the mid-3rd millennium which gave a particular ceramic (Amri Ware), with geometric or figurative motifs on a brown or reddish-brown background. There also remain structures of adobe, cubicles or cells. Pirak, on the other hand, is a settlement from the early Iron Age.

In the wake of the excavations conducted by the Italians in Swāt, the Archaeological Department of the University of Peshāwar has carried out numerous excavations in Buddhist locations in the NorthWest Frontier Province. In the area of ​​Chakdara (Dīr), st ū pa and monasteries have appeared in Andandherī, Chatpat and Damkot, which have given abundant sculptural material. Damkot also has an older phase (mid-1st millennium), with a material similar to that of Swāt (Ghālīgai) and Timargarha (we now speak of a Gandh ā ra Grave Culture). Other Buddhist sites were discovered by the Japanese archaeological mission in the Mardān district (Chanaka-Dherī, Mekha Sanda, Thareli). Also in Tulamba, near Multān, Buddhist vestiges of the first centuries of the Christian era have been found, but the life of the site continues even in the Middle Ages, when a particular ceramic (Tulamba Stamped Ware) appears characterized by the great variety of designs. The Muslim period, alongside the excavation of Banbhore (v.), Records that of Manṣūra, a city founded by the Arabs in Sind at the beginning of the 8th century and remained alive until the 12th century.

Pakistan Population