Pakistan. A South Asian state, which arose in 1947 from the dissolution of British rule in the Indian subcontinent. The reasons that led to its birth have ancient roots. Before the British conquest in the 19th century, India had long been dominated by powerful Muslim dynasties (➔ Mughal, empire) who had consolidated a strong Islamic component in the country, in conflicting relations with the Hindu majority of the population. The conflict between the two communities continued during the British domination and marked the years of the liberation struggle; at the moment of independence, in a context of serious violence, two new states were born, the Indian Union, with a Hindu majority, and Pakistan, a Muslim majority.
This included Sind, West Panjab, Baluchistan, Northwest Frontier Province and East Bengal, which became Eastern Pakistan, separated from Western Pakistan by over 1500 km of Indian territory. The Pakistan became an Islamic Republic in 1956, albeit sided with the Western bloc. In 1948, MA Jinnah he had declared Urdu the official language of Pakistan, triggering serious riots in Bengal, speaking Bengali; the tension between western and eastern Pakistan grew to the point of unleashing a civil war in 1971, following which eastern Bengal broke away, giving birth to Bangladesh. The political crisis that followed in Pakistan brought to power Z. Bhutto, who gave way to a nuclear program that would have made Pakistan an atomic power, giving internal politics a turning point in the sense of state socialism. For Pakistan history, please check historyaah.com.
Bhutto eventually succumbed to the rise of religious parties, which brought General M. Zia-ul-Haq to power (1977), in a bloodless coup that Islamized the Pakistan and imposed martial law, abolishing socialist reforms and bringing the country back into the anti-Soviet bloc. The death of Zia ul-Haq (1988) was followed by about a decade of civilian governments, headed by B. Bhutto and N. Sharif, who were predominantly hostage to the surrounding events, and especially to the consequences of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which displaced large masses of refugees adepts of an extreme form of Sunni reformism (➔ Taliban) to Pakistan In 1999, a new coup d’etat brought the head of the army, Pakistan Musharraf, to power, who strengthened ties with the USA, while continuing the military and nuclear confrontation with the Indian Union, in particular. for the control of Kashmir. After the attacks of 11 Sept. 2001, Pakistan was pushed by the US to stop assisting the Afghan Taliban, supported since their seizure of power (1996) by the Pakistani secret services, to become in 2004 one of the main partners of the United States outside NATO. The 2008 elections led to Musharraf’s abandonment of power and the victory of Asif Ali Zardari, head of the People’s Party of Pakistan (PPP) after the political assassination of its former leader, B. Bhutto, who was his wife, in 2007.