Pakistan Children’s Encyclopedia

By | December 18, 2021


The Islamic component of the Indian subcontinent

Among the most populous countries in the world, with a number of problems that slow down its development, Pakistan has very modern and very advanced aspects alongside others that are completely opposite: the distance between incompatible models of life – such as those of shepherds or peasants. of the mountains and those of the residents of large cities – is perhaps the most difficult problem to solve. For Pakistan 2009, please check

A problematic development

The Pakistani territory is mountainous in the northern regions, which rise up to over 8,000 m (such as K2 in the Karakorum), and in the west; to the east, the Indus plain makes fairly rich agriculture thrive.

The climate is continental in the north, semi-arid in the west and monsoon in the plain.

The most fertile region is the Panjab, which is home to half the population and the main cities.

Agriculture – cotton and sugarcane, cereals and legumes – and semi-nomadic farming represent the traditional economy, but Pakistan has modern textile, mechanical, chemical, water and mineral (coal, oil) industries, and has also developed a nuclear program..

Modern life takes place in the cities: Karachi (9,339,000 residents, main port), Lahore (5,143,000 residents, ancient city, rich in monuments, an important Islamic center) and the capital Islamabad (529,000 residents), which was founded lately.

The strong differences in development between regions, ethnic groups and social classes, demographic growth and poverty push Pakistanis to intense emigration.

A great Islamic country

Pakistan arose in 1947, together with the Indian Union (India), from the dissolution of British rule in the Indian subcontinent. The reasons that led to its birth have ancient roots. In fact, before the British conquest in the 19th century, India had long been dominated by powerful Muslim dynasties which had consolidated a strong Islamic component in the country, in tending to conflict with the majority of the population, of Hindu religion. The conflict between the two communities continued during the British domination and marked the years of the liberation struggle. So at the moment of independence, in a context of serious violence, not one, but two new states were born: the Indian Union, with a Hindu majority, and Pakistan, with a Muslim majority.

At the time of its birth, Pakistan comprised two distinct territorial nuclei: West Pakistan and East Pakistan, formed by the Muslim provinces of Bengal. The latter, through a short war, separated from western Pakistan (now Pakistan) in 1971, giving life to the Bangla Desh.

In terms of foreign policy, Pakistan has had very conflicting relations with the Indian Union, in particular for the control of Kashmir. This conflict, which became open warfare in 1948 and 1965, reached a high point in the late 1990s, when the two countries carried out nuclear tests, thereby threatening the possibility of nuclear war. In domestic politics, Pakistan – constituted as an Islamic republic since 1956 – has experienced long periods of instability, repeated military coups, weak attempts at modernization from above, fragile reform experiments, all in the context of serious ethnic and religious conflicts and of a growing Islamization of society, which has further intensified, despite the efforts of the government.

Pakistan Islamic country