The flag of Oman bears the coat of arms in the upper leech. The color red is the traditional flag color of the Gulf States, white stands for peace and prosperity, and green for fertility.
The burial mounds on the edge of the western and eastern al-Hadjar Mountains in Oman are important early traces of settlement and Neolithic necropolis from the 3rd millennium BC. Chr.
In the first centuries AD it belonged to the sphere of influence of Hadramaut and was under Ethiopian and Persian (Sassanid) sovereignty since the 6th century; it was already of great importance in early antiquity as a stopover in trade between the Mesopotamian city-states and India. The copper extracted in the north of today’s country was exported as was the incense produced in the south (Dhofar). From 634 Oman was part of the Arab-Islamic rule, 751-1154 and from 1428 as a de facto independent Ibaditisches (Charidjiten) Imamate. The imams from the Jarubid dynasty (since 1624) expelled the Portuguese from the Muscat branch they had acquired in 1507 in 1649 and conquered their holdings on the coast of East Africa from 1698 onwards. In 1741 the governor of Zohar, Ahmad Ibn Said (* around 1700, † 1783) , a Persian invading army, took on the title of “Imam” in 1749 and became the founder of the Said dynasty, which reigns to this day. His successors were called “Sajid” or “Sultan”. Muscat (residence since 1793), and from 1828–57 also Zanzibar, was the center of its flourishing maritime empire. The decline of trade, separation from the East African colonies (1856) and dynastic battles led to increased British influence (20 treaties between 1798 and 1958; the friendship and economic treaty of 1891 made Oman a de facto British protectorate). After the election of an imam in the interior of the country, a civil war broke out in 1913, which ended with the Treaty of As-Sib (September 25, 1920, autonomy of the imamate).
Sultan Sir Said Ibn Taimur (* 1910, † 1972; since 1932) confirmed Oman’s close relationship with the British protecting power with friendship, trade and shipping treaties (concluded in 1939 and 1951); In 1957 British troops put down an uprising (1955–57) by the newly elected Imam in 1954 and ended his rule in the interior of the country. Since 1967, oil production has been the determining factor.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arabian Gulf (English abbreviation PFLOAG), v. a. Active in 1964/65 with guerrilla actions in the Dhofar area, from 1970 onwards, supported by the People’s Republic of Yemen, sought to implement socialist ideas (according to Marxist principles) in the area controlled by it; In 1975 she was made with the help of v. a. Smashed by troops from Iran and Great Britain, it disbanded in 1982.
On July 23, 1970 Kabus Ibn Said Ibn Taimur overthrew his father and took over the rule as Sultan. He started a modernization with reforms, among other things. Nationalization of the oil production, improvement of the education and training system as well as the infrastructure. After the withdrawal of the British troops (1977/78) and the fundamentalist Islamic revolution in Iran (1979), Oman (member of the Arab League and the UNO since 1971) saw its state and social existence threatened; the Sultan, who initiated the peace initiative (Camp David) of Egyptian President A. as-Sadat against Israel, called Egyptian troops into the country (1979) and allowed the US to use Omani military facilities (1980). In 1981 Oman participated in the founding of the Golf Council (GCC). In the 1st Gulf War between Iraq and Iran (1980-88) it won a strategically important position on the Strait of Hormuz with its exclave on the Musandam peninsula. After the occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi troops (August 2, 1990), Oman took part in the deployment of international forces in Saudi Arabia and in the 2nd Gulf War against Iraq (February 17 to 28, 1991). In February 1995, relations with Israel began normalizing. The sultan received international recognition for his independent and initiative-rich foreign policy within the region. In 2000 Oman became a member of the WTO.
On December 21, 1991, the National Consultative Assembly opened in November 1981 resulted in the Madjlis asch-Shura; in December 1997, the members of the new Consultative Council were appointed for the first time after an election. With the bicameral system of the constitution of 1996, there is now a State Council directly determined by the Sultan (since 1997/98). In October 2003, the members of the Consultative Council were determined for the first time in general elections (including two women). In the elections in October 2007, none of the female candidates made it to the Consultative Council. Influenced by the protest and revolutionary movements in other Arab countries, the people of Oman also demonstrated for political and social reforms in 2011. There were violent clashes with the security forces. On October 15th In 2011 there were again elections for the Consultative Council. Only one woman was elected to the committee. Your mandate was confirmed in the elections on October 25, 2015.
Main Cities in Oman
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Muscat, Muscat [ m ʌ skət], the capital and seaport of the Sultanate of Oman in the east of the Arabian Peninsula, on the south coast of the Gulf of Oman located between steep rocks, together with the port city of Matrah, the oil port of Mina al-Fahal (refinery) and Seeb (international airport) an agglomeration with (2010) 775 900 residents.
Sultan Qaboos University near Muscat (opened in 1986); National Museum, Natural History Museum; Royal Opera House (opened October 2011); Seawater desalination plant.
Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Muscat was an important hub for Arab-African trade in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Salala, Salalah, capital of the Dhofar region, Oman, port city on the Indian Ocean, (2010) 155 300 residents.
Sultan’s summer residence; international Airport; new container port (opened in 1998) in Raysut (18 km southwest).
Matrah [ matrax], Mutrah, seaport in Oman, immediately west of Muscat ; (2010) 150 100 residents.
Fishing and trading, shipbuilding.