Norway Medieval Arts Part II

By | December 17, 2021

The place of origin of this style is still obscure, but it can hypothetically be recognized as a secondary branch of Danish Romanesque. Among his earliest examples are the ancient Oslo Cathedral – dedicated to St. Alvardo and completely destroyed in the middle of the century. 17 ° – and the Gamle Akerskirke, on the outskirts of the same city: it is a construction of Romanesque tradition, which presents the transept, the massive crossing tower, the interior and the exterior in severe forms, almost completely lacking of decorative sculpture. The shop that had worked on this church, or at least part of it, he undertook the construction of the churches of Gran (Mariakirke, Nicolaskirke), of Ringsaker and, probably, of the ancient cathedral of Hamar (now in ruins), all located in rich cereal production districts. The refusal of ornamentation that characterized this school was widespread and can, with some reservations, be interpreted as a manifestation of regional preferences. Less easy to follow is the spread of architectural tastes and techniques of other Norwegian cities. The construction site of the century. 12 ° of Stavanger Cathedral seems to have had some effect on the construction and decoration of churches even in the distant eastern region of Telemark, which was nevertheless part of the Stavanger bishopric. Later, following the style adopted in the reconstruction of the cathedral, the gothic choir seems to have been a model for a new wave of diffusion in the area surrounding Stavanger. In the Bergen region the royal building activity of the century. 13th had a considerable impact on the churches erected along the west coast; in some of them there are splendid examples of Gothic architectural ornaments transposed into a popular artistic idiom by the hands of local stonecutters, such as the capitals in the portico of the Dale Kirke in Luster, in the district of Sogn. The Ulstein Monastery Church, a large royal foundation to the North of Stavanger, adheres closely to the formal repertoire of the full Gothic of Bergen. to which that company was stalled, took part in the construction of local churches within a vast surrounding region. For Norway political system, please check politicsezine.com.

Evidence of this is the presence of ornamental forms peculiar to the construction site of the cathedral and, in some cases, the lapidary signs. Even the architectural forms were re-proposed in block from the center to the periphery: one of the most evident examples is constituted, in the century. 13 °, from the imitation, on a reduced scale, of the polygonal head of the Trondheim cathedral in the church of Alstadhaug, in the Nord-Tröndelag district. It was undoubtedly from the architectural activity in the cities that, in the century. 12th, the builders and sculptors of the stave churches derived some of their models. In two churches in the vicinity of Trondheim, Vaernes and Maere, there are notable examples of the transposition of ornamental forms from stone to wood: the heads of the wooden beams that support the roof trusses are sculpted in imitation of the grotesque heads that run as a frieze on the walls of Romanesque basilicas; the expression of ferocity that characterizes these ‘provincial’ animal heads, produced around 1200 as late additions to churches, far exceeds that of their models. Also noteworthy was the construction of monastic buildings. Among the Cistercian monasteries we must remember that of Lysekloster near Bergen (1146) and that of Hovedöya in Oslo (1147), both founded by monks from England. Destroyed following the Reformation, their plans still testify to the presence of all the main components of the Cistercian project, which even here, on the periphery of the civilized world, it was strictly preserved. Bergen Lutheran Cathedral incorporates a Franciscan convent church from the years 1270-1300, with a vaulted choir, single trussed nave and elaborate east window; this is one of the few buildings of the monastic orders in Norway to be still used as a church. 14th, Norway did not take part in the late medieval revival of vaulted construction and fresco decoration that made itself felt so energetically a century later in neighboring countries, including peripheral Finland. In any case, the reluctance of Norwegian builders to erect brick buildings, widely used by Danes and Swedes instead, had to be linked to factors other than economic ones: brick was used only sporadically even in the prosperous thirteenth century, perhaps due to a lack of confidence in its stability in such a harsh climate. This construction technique was used by Norwegian workshops only from the beginning of the century. 14 ° and was used on a monumental scale only for the reconstruction of the chapel dedicated to the Virgin in the royal palace in Oslo. The last major architectural feat before the Reformation was the reconstruction of the choir enclosure in Trondheim Cathedral. Destroyed by a new fire, it was skillfully rearranged in the second decade of the century. 16th, in an attempt to stop the beginning of the decline that threatened the great church.

Norway Medieval Arts Part II