Norway is a hereditary constitutional monarchy. The succession is direct, by male descent. The king, who professes the Evangelical Lutheran religion, represents the executive power; he is the commander of the army and has the right of suspensive veto in legislative matters. The legislative assembly consists of a single chamber (Storting) elected by proportional suffrage by citizens of both sexes who have reached the age of 23. All citizens who have reached the age of 30 can participate in the assembly. Two thirds of the members represent the rural districts. The chamber elects a quarter of its members from among its members, who form the Lagting, which has functions in the field of law in the strict sense. The king is irresponsible, since the responsibility lies with his council, consisting of 9 persons appointed according to the principles of parliamentarism. The members of the government are in charge of the ministries. The local administration is divided between state officials and elected by the population. The country is divided into 20 fylker (provinces), 18 rural counties and the two cities of Oslo and Bergen. Svalbard and Jan Mayen Island form a separate administered province. The provinces are governed by prefects (fylkesmenn) assisted by provincial councils made up of the mayors of the municipalities. The municipalities (herreder) are administered by a mayor and an elected municipal council. There are a total of 749 municipalities between rural and urban. The administration is decentralized, local authorities have a high degree of autonomy: they are subjected to strict surveillance only in matters of taxation. If a municipality is severely in trouble, the administration is taken over by the state.
In the administration of justice, civil cases follow the procedural law of 1915. In every municipality there are conciliation councils (forliksraad). From them, the cases pass to the provincial and city courts. An appeal can be lodged against the decisions of all at one of the three higher courts of appeal (overretten). The criminal courts are: first instance court, assize court and court of cassation which ultimately decides both civil and criminal cases. The members of the court of cassation, together with a quarter of the members of the Storting, form the constitutional court of the kingdom (Riksretten) who may, if necessary, judge the members of the government. The jury institution was introduced in 1887.
Army. – Norway has compulsory military service, with a small core of permanent personnel (officers, non-commissioned officers and career soldiers) for the education of personnel and for the continuity of life of certain organs. The conscripts serve in arms: from 60 to 90 days, for the school of recruits; subsequently, from 48 to 120 days, in two to three periods of recall for instruction. It is divided into: active army, landevern, landstorm. The landevern cannot be used outside the national territory without the consent of the Storting; the landstorm he can only be called up in the event of a national war. Commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the king. The latter delegates, in peacetime, his functions to the Minister of Defense, who is assisted by a General Staff (technical executive body) and by an army council (consultative body).
The army includes: troops (infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineering, aviation weapons); services (administration, health, train). It is divided into 6 divisions (large units) which have various compositions (command, 2 to 3 infantry regiments, field or mountain artillery, cavalry, cyclists, engineers, services, military schools). The weapons include: infantry: 4 companies of the royal guard, 16 regiments, the autonomous battalion; cavalry: 3 regiments; artillery: 3 campaign regiments, 2 groups and 1 mountain battery, 3 fortress groups; genius: 1 regiment, 2 autonomous battalions; aviation: the battalion and 1 section.
Military service is compulsory, from the age of 20. The duration of the military obligation is 24 years (12 in the active army and 12 in the landevern); from the age of 44 to 55, men belong to the landstorm. For Norway military, please check militarynous.com.
Navy. – The Norwegian navy was formed even before the kingdom of Norway separated from Sweden. The conceptions and political directives of the governments that have followed one another in Norway for some years have so far meant that the new constructions have been completely neglected, except for the submarines; so this marina, which also has beautiful traditions, is currently made up of antiquated units of little war value.
They are as follows:
Coastal battleships: Norge, Eidsvold, launched in 1900 in England, 4200 tons. and 17 knots, armed with 2/210, 6/152, 8/76 and 2/47 anti-aircraft; Harald Haarfagre, Tordenskjold, launched in 1897 in England, from 3900 tons. and 17 knots, armed with 2/210, 6/120, 6/76 and 2/47 anti-aircraft; the Tordenskjold is used as a training ship.
Destroyers: Garm, Troll, Draug, launched respectively in 1913, 1910 and 1908, of 550 tons. and 27 knots, armed with 6 / 7b and 3 launch tubes of 450.
Torpedo boats: three of 220 tons. and 25 knots, launched in 1918 and armed with 2/76 and two twin 450 launch tubes. Eleven of 90 tons. and 20-25 knots, launched from 1896 to 1907, armed with pieces of 76, 47, 37 and launch tubes of 450. Twelve of 45-70 tons. and 19-20 knots, launched from 1896 to 1906, armed with 2/37 and two launch tubes of 450.
Submarines: six distinguished by the characteristic B, launched between 1922 and 1930, from 420-545 tons. and 14.5-10.5 knots, armed with 4 launch tubes and 1/76. Three distinguished by characteristic A, launched in 1913 in Germany, from 260-340 tons. and 14-9 knots.
Minelayer: there is one under construction (1934), the Olav Tryggvason, from 1700 tons. and 20 knots, armed with 4/120, 1/76 and two twin 450 launch tubes, capable of carrying 280 torpedoes and also intended to serve as a student training ship; Frøya, launched in 1916, of 760 tons. and 22 knots, armed with 4/102 and a 450 twin launch tube, capable of carrying 200 torpedoes; Glommen and Laugen, launched in 1916, of 350 tons. and 9.5 knots, armed with 2/76 and capable of carrying 50 torpedoes. Seven launched between 1874 and 1887, on the 250 tons. and 8-10 knots.
There are also some minor units (gunboat, submarine support vessel, fishery protection vessel, transport vessel). The navy has around 2200 men, half of whom are volunteers and the rest are conscripts.
Military aviation. – It is under the control of the Ministry of Defense. The ground air forces are grouped into squadrons; they include 4 fighter squadrons with 24 devices, 1 night bombardment squadron with 6 devices, 4 exploration and reconnaissance squadrons with 47 devices. Including reserves, the Norwegian air force is about 150 land-based aircraft and about 40 seaplanes. There are two aviation schools (land and naval, in Lillestrøm and Horten respectively). The only aircraft factories are military ones.