Norway 1949

By | December 17, 2021

Population. – On 3 December 1946 a census was carried out which gave these results.

In the fifteen years 1930-46 there was thus an increase of 11% (11.5% in rural municipalities, 9.5% in urban ones); in the last 80 years the Norwegian population has almost doubled (increase of 432% since 1769, the time of the first regular census). The urban population, which in 1920 represented 29.6% of the total, now represents 28.1%. Only two cities have over 100,000 residents (Oslo and Bergen), one (Trondheim) has 50,000, and 16 have 10,000. The movement of the population after 1936 was as follows:

In 1946 the marriage rates were among the highest since 1901; birth rates show a tendency to rise towards the pre-1925 figures; those of mortality the lowest in an absolute sense. The demographic surplus is thus the highest after 1901 (except for 1920).

Economic conditions. – Agriculture, forestry and fishing absorb 35.3% of the Norwegian population; industry 26.5%, trade (including merchant marine and transport) 21.8%; but the value of industrial production is 4 to 6 times higher, and that of commercial activities more than double that of agricultural products. The disproportion has been accentuated from 1935 to 1947. For Norway business, please check cheeroutdoor.com.

Agricultural statistics show, in recent years, a significant contraction in the areas cultivated with cereals, even compared to 1935-36; an increase, albeit modest, in those destined for potatoes and fodder. Wheat, after having had a strong expansion from 1936 to 1945 (49.212 ha. In 1942), fell in 1947 to a figure (29.157 ha.) Slightly higher than the average of the five-year period 1934-38 (29.157 ha.); rye instead occupied the same date less than 1 / 4 (1343 ha.) of the area held in 1934-38. As for average returns, the figures for the 1940-44 five-year period are all lower than those of the 1930-39 decade and even more so than those of the 1935-39 five-year period. Here are the figures for the most important harvests:

The consistency of the livestock is as follows:

The production of butter and cheeses fell sharply after 1942. The fishery product also dropped considerably compared with the pre-war period (755.7 tons of fish, of which 551.9 tons of herring and 119.4 tons of cod in 1945, instead of 1064.7 t. in 1938), while for the hunting of seals and whales the figures of 1946-47 almost equal those of 1938-39.

Mining production is as follows:

Norway’s hydroelectric reserves have been valued at 9.2 million kW. At the end of 1946 only 17.5% of this potential was installed (1.616.000 kW.) And the energy production amounted to 11.569 million kWh., Mostly used in the electrochemical and electrometallurgical industries.

Despite the progress and efforts made, the industry is still largely unequal to the needs of the country.

Commerce. – Here are the values ​​of foreign trade from 1940 to 1947:

In 1946, imports consisted mainly of ships and vehicles, liquid and solid fuels, cereals, textiles, iron and steel, machines and electrical appliances, etc.; exports of cellulose, paper and paper (1/3 in value), fishery products (another 1/3), animal fats and oils, chemical fertilizers, non-ferrous metals, iron and steel, etc. Major suppliers include the US, Great Britain, Sweden and Canada; among the customers Sweden, Denmark, Great Britain and the USA. The petty participation, for both voices, of the USSR is noticeable. The Italian-Norwegian exchange is modest; in 1946 there was a slight surplus of exports to Italy (51 against 47 million crowns).

Communications. – Norway owns (1947) 44,395 km. of roads, of which about half of major roads. The number of motor vehicles on the same date was 115,480 (roughly the actual 1939).

In 1945 the railway network in operation measured 4194 km. (3998 in 1936), all belonging to the state (with the exception of 82 km. Of private railways) and for 701 km. (42 of which private) electrified.

Merchant marine. – From 1 September 1939 to 8 May 1945 the Norwegian merchant navy lost 729 ships for 2.3 million tons. tonnage, equal to 50% of its staff. As of January 1, 1948, according to the Lloyd Register, it had 1747 ships for a total tonnage of 3,936,000 tons, thus occupying the 3rd place among the world merchant navies. About 2/3 of the tonnage is made up of motor ships.

Civil aviation0). – DNL (Det Norske Luftfartselskap) operates 3618 km. of national lines (Oslo-Trondheim; Oslo-Stavanger; Tromsø-Stavanger; Tromsø-Kirkenes; Bergen-Stavanger) and 18,427 km. of international lines (Oslo-London; Oslo-Glasgow, Oslo-Aalborg; Oslo-Amsterdam-Paris; Oslo-Copenhagen; Oslo-Zurich-Rome; Oslo-Prague; Oslo-Karlstad-Stockholm; Oslo-Stockholm). In 1947, 102,702 passengers (75,649 on international lines) and 875.2 t were transported. of goods.

Addictions. – On January 14, 1939, the Norwegian government declared the territory of Antarctica delimited by 20 ° O. Greenw to be its dependency. (Land of Coats) and 45 ° E. Greenw. (Terra Regina Maud), that is between the British sector (Falkland) and the Australian one; territory recognized by the expedition of Norway (1929-30) by Riiser Larsen (see Antarctica, in this App.).

Bibl.: T. Cook, Guide to Norway, Sweden etc., London 1939; OB Grimley, The new Norway, Oslo 1939; A. Lyle, Die Industrialisierung Norvetesens, Iena 1939; WC Slingsby, Norway: The Northern Playground, Oxford 1940; W. Keilhan, Norway in World History, London 1944; Central Norwegian Statistical Office, Statistik årbok for Norge 1946-1948, Oslo 1948.

Finances. – During the war the Norwegian economy suffered damages valued at about 3 billion dollars 1938 for the destruction of assets and for the withdrawals made by the Germans through the imbalances of the clearing account and the contributions imposed by way of reimbursement of the expenses of employment. The financing of these withdrawals was almost exclusively through accounts opened in favor of the state with the Bank of Norway (for an amount that exceeded 11 billion crowns); the inflationary effects of such a procedure were, however, mitigated by a series of sterilization measures (application of taxes and issuance of treasury bills without the use of the equivalent) still adopted during the occupation, which allowed the government to repay part of the debt towards the ‘

Immediately after the liberation, the government began the work of monetary and financial consolidation, implementing, in September 1945, the exchange of tickets (with the registration in blocked account of 40% of the banknotes withdrawn), the partial blocking of bank deposits and the tax reporting of private and public securities. These measures were followed, in June 1946, by the application of a special tax on war excess profits, with increasing rates from 30 to 95%. As a result of the monetary reform, the circulation, which between December 1939 and April 1945 had increased from 547 million to 3 billion crowns, was reduced, in the following October, to 1.1 billion, and then gradually increased, until to stabilize, starting from December 1947, on the figure of 2 billion. Much stronger was the increase in sight deposits, which passed between December 1939 and October 1948 from 263 million to 4.1 billion. However, the strong increase in fiduciary and bank money had a limited influence on the general level of prices, which remained low thanks to government controls and subsidies (at the end of October 1948 the index numbers of the cost of living and wholesale prices had increased respectively of 62 and 79 per cent compared to 1937): in this respect the Norwegian economy constitutes one of the most typical examples of repressed inflation.

Below are the figures of the financial statements for the last 10 years (financial years from 1 July to 30 June):

The difficulties in achieving balance are mainly attributable to the pricing policy pursued by the government (for the financial year 1948-49 subsidy costs are expected to be 600 million) and the compensation for war damages. The deficits of recent years have been covered in part by withdrawals from the cash funds that the Treasury had built up during the occupation, depositing the proceeds from the anti-inflationary issues of treasury bills with the Bank of Norway (at the end of November 1948 3.2 billion), partly through the sale of securities to banks and insurance companies, and to a lesser extent – finally – with the placement of securities with private individuals and with the use of the proceeds of credits obtained abroad.

The internal public debt passed between the end of 1939 and the end of 1947 from 868 to 14,402 million, including the amount of 8094 million, representing the debt of the state to the Bank of Norway for the financing of employment expenses. However, the burden of interest on the budget is very limited, as the government has succeeded in recent years, with the help of a tenaciously pursued low-cost money policy, in converting most of the old companies to 2.50%. issues, which involved rates ranging from 3.50 to 4.50%. The external public debt, on the other hand, marked a decline, passing in the same period from 596 to 430 million.

Due to the significant reduction in freight revenues, due to the losses suffered by the merchant marine and following the increase in import needs for the replenishment of stocks and the modernization of the facilities, there was a significant imbalance in the balance of payments., which was remedied with foreign financing (loans from the United States, Canada and Sweden) and with recourse to the gold and equivalent reserves of the Bank of Norway, which passed, in the period between January 1947 and November 1948, from 1174 to 682 million, making it necessary to tighten state control over imports and currency exchange,

In August 1939, in connection with the devaluation of the pound sterling, the krona-sterling exchange rate was raised from 19.90 to 17.70 and consequently the exchange rate against the dollar increased to 4.40 kroner per dollar. On May 16, 1945, the new exchange rates of 20.05 and 4.97 crowns were fixed, respectively for one pound and one dollar; in relation to them the gold parity of the crown of gr. 0,179067 of fine.

Norway 1949