Norway 1938

By | December 17, 2021

Population. – The movement of the population in recent years has been very limited and the population according to the latest evaluation is therefore 2,895,000 residents on 322,000 sq. km., including the water surface which was around 15,000 sq. km. with a density of about 9 residents per sq. km. For the years 1935 and 1936 there are the following values ​​for the movement of the population: live births 41,321 (14.4 ‰) and 42,842 (14.8 ‰); deaths 29,747 (10.3 ‰) and 29,761 (10.3 ‰) with a surplus of 4.0 ‰ and 4.5 ‰. Very low values, which together with the very low values ​​of emigration and immigration explain the almost zero variation in the overall population.

Economic conditions. – The statistics of agricultural production (p. 947) from 1931 to 1936 show a notable variation in the cultivated areas, especially for some products, among which the following are important: wheat 30,200 ha. with a production of 57,000 tons; rye 5900 ha. with 10,800 tons; barley 60,400 ha. with 114,000 tons; oats 85,200 ha. with 171,200 tons; potatoes 51,600 ha. with 95,800 tons These data show a compression in the cultivation of rye, which is always one of the most used cereals for bread making, so much so that a very large quantity is imported. For Norway economics and business, please check

Among the minerals (p. 948), the first place goes to pyrite with a quantity of 1,031,825 tons. for a value of 16,914,000 crowns; iron ores follow with 846.809 tons. for 12,039,000 crowns; silver 16.020, cor. 350,000. Considerable importance still have the minerals of copper, zinc and lead, molybdenum, etc.

Industries, especially hydroelectric, metallurgical and food industries give life to a remarkable trade whose values ​​are the following in millions of crowns:

The main imported products include cereals, fruit and legumes, oils, fats and gums, fabrics, raw and processed minerals, ships, cars, etc .; while among those for export, food products, raw or semi-finished metals, pulp for the manufacture of paper and paper are of greater importance. The trade movement is especially notable for and from Great Britain, Germany, the United States, Sweden. Exchanges with Italy are very scarce (imports from Italy 4.0, exports to Italy 7.6). The movement of ports in 1936 was 9907 ships with a net tonnage of tons. 8,039,000, of which 4,889 are Norwegians with a tonnage of 3,991,400.

Merchant Navy. – This navy continues to occupy the fourth place in the world, in 1937, with 4.347.000 tons. gross; it is increased by 122.1% compared to 1914. Remarkable characteristics are; a) continues to sail intensively between foreign ports, especially as regards tramps and tanks; b) the shipping is very young (the proportion of tonnage under the age of 5 rose to 17.9% in 1937; it is only surpassed by that of Japan: 18.3%); c) it has a high percentage of motorized vessels (56%; it ranks first in the world from this point of view as the share of world motorized tonnage on all existing vessels rises to 20.7%); d) has a high proportion of tanks (250 to 1,850,256 gross tons; it ranks third in the world after England and the United States); e) finally has a high share of whaling factories and whale catchers (i.e. factory ships for whale by-products and steam whalers; from this point of view it can only be said that eleven farm ships among the 31 launched in the Antarctic in the season 1937-38 and 81 whalers on the 257 that support them, fly the Norwegian flag). In 1936-37 the Norwegian armament had some ships built at the Trieste shipyards, on the basis of a barter agreement.

Civil aviation. – The companies and airlines currently in existence are: 1. Det Norske Luftfartsselskap Fred Olsen & Bergenske A / S., Which operates the lines: a) Copenhagen-Gothenburg-Oslo-Arendal-Kristiansund-Stavanger-Haugesund-Bergen; b) Oslo-Stockholm; c) Oslo Gothenburg; 2. Wideroe’s Flyveselskap, which operates the Trondheim-Brönnöysund-Sandnessjoen-Bodo line; 3. Norsk Lufttrafik; 4. A / S. Vest-Norges Flyveselskap; 5. Wessels Flyveselskap A / S.

Military aviation (p. 951). – In 1935 a new aspect was given to the organization of military aviation, divided into military aviation and naval aviation. The first group includes 1 regiment with 6 squadrons (3 reconnaissance and 3 fighter) and 1 group of 2 squadrons (1 reconnaissance and 1 fighter), totaling 90 aircraft. Naval aviation includes 3 aeronautical stations with 90 reconnaissance, fighter and torpedo aircraft.

Navy. – New units: Destroyers: 5 (Sleipner, Aeger and three others), under construction or launched in 1936, from 560-625 tons. and 30 knots, armed with 3/102, 2 twin launch tubes of 533.2 bomb launchers and equipped as minelayers. Patrol ships: 2 (Nordkapp, Senja), launched in 1937, of 250 tons. and 13.7 knots, armed with 1/47, normally assigned to fisheries surveillance.

Finance. – The maintained exchange rate stability and the favorable global economic situation have contributed to a significant recovery, as shown by the following figures (in millions of crowns) of the latest financial statements:

At 30 June 1937, the external debt was 711 million and the internal debt of 872 million (of which 829 million of consolidated).

Since 1933 the currency has been pegged to sterling at the rate of 19.90 crowns per 1 pound: a de facto stabilization which recognized a devaluation of about 45% and which has not undergone further changes. With the law of June 30, 1936, the issue limit, in addition to the equivalent of the reserve, was raised to 325 million.

As of December 31, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 449 million and the reserve was 180 million in gold and 233 in foreign exchange.

History. – Following the House vote against a government decision against the increase in expenses to combat unemployment, the Mowinckel ministry had to resign on March 16, 1935. He was succeeded by the Nygaardsvold ministry (head of the parliamentary fraction of the Labor party), who from then he remained in office continuously. The elections of October 18, 1936 strengthened the position of the Labor Party (71 seats instead of 69), and of the Conservatives (36 seats instead of 30), weakening the liberals (23 instead of 24) and above all of the agrarians (18 instead of 23).

Norwegian foreign policy is increasingly oriented towards close collaboration between the so-called “Nordic states” (Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark) and with other states (Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland) belonging to the group of so-called “Oslo states. “(see oslo, states of, App.). The two conferences in Helsinki (20-21 April) and Stockholm (7-8 September) in 1937 were an expression of collaboration with the other Nordic states: the latter was especially important because, faced with the problems raised by the recent activities of the League of Nations (sanctions against Italy), and the need for reform of the Covenant, the Nordic states have reaffirmed the principles already expressed by them on 1 July 1936, together with the other “neutral” states (Switzerland, Holland and Spain), ie the need to maintain – even in cases provided for by art. 16 of the Covenant – a policy of neutrality, so as not to compromise the fundamental interests of the respective countries. This affirmation was reiterated in the Oslo Conference of States in Copenhagen in July 1938 which decided – while continuing to collaborate with the League of Nations – to no longer consider the system of sanctions mandatory, to safeguard its neutrality in conflicts between other powers.. To implement this policy, the consolidation of national defense is necessary: ​​and so in June 1937 the Chamber approved an extraordinary budget for national defense.

Norway 1938