Nigeria Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Nigeria Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Nigeria gained independence from Great Britain on 1 October 1960. Nigeria is a federal republic consisting of 36 states and the Capital Territory (FCT) with a presidential system of power. Each of the individual states has its own government headed by a governor and state representative bodies, the FCT has its own minister in the federal government. Within the individual states of the federation, however, there are also local governments (Local Governments), of which there are a total of 774. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral Federal National Assembly. It consists of the Senate (109 members) and the House of Representatives (360 members). Both houses are elected for 4 years, the last parliamentary elections were held on 23/02/2019. In these elections, the leading party All Progressives Congress (APC) won 212 seats, the second largest party People’s Democratic Party (PDP) ended with a gain of 127 seats. 21 seats were won by small local parties. The situation is similar in the Senate (64 APC, 44 PDP). The last presidential and gubernatorial elections scheduled for 23.02 and 13.03.2019 were decisive for the dynamics of internal political development in Nigeria. The victory of incumbent President Muhammadu Buhari (PMB) was assumed. Given PMB’s advanced age, this is also expected to be the last election in Nigeria in which the generation of generals who have ruled the country de facto non-stop from the 1970s to today will play a prominent role. The next presidential election, which will be decisive for the further course of the country, will take place in 2023. Traditional rulers (kings, chiefs, emirs) still retain great influence, especially in local communities. Executive power is vested in the federal government (Federal Executive Council), headed by the president. Ministers are appointed by the president, approved by both chambers of the parliament. Judicial power is exercised by magistrates, district, district, customary courts or, in the northern states, Sharia courts, then state courts and state courts of appeal, the federal court, the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeal. Check computerminus to learn more about Nigeria political system.

Foreign policy of the country

Nigeria is considered an ally of Western countries. Even if relations with the USA, France and Great Britain sometimes crackle (the cause is often ill-founded great power ambitions combined with a certain arrogance of Nigeria, in the case of the USA also reports of human rights violations by the Nigerian army), it remains the main partner of the West in the region in the fight against terrorism and as such receives aid from the aforementioned countries. In January 2014, Nigeria became a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. In the UN Security Council, he takes mostly pro-Western positions. At the same time, Nigeria is trying to develop cooperation “in all directions” and in this context emphasizes that the Czech Republic is a priority country for it within Central Europe. It maintains very good trade relations with India, which has become the largest buyer of Nigerian oil. The PRC is also a very important investor in Nigeria. Political relations with South Africa are burdened by rivalry on the African continent, but South African companies have a very significant position on the Nigerian market. Nigeria is a member country of the UN (UN), AU, ICM (HNZ – Movement of Independent Countries), WTO (World Trade Organization), which is currently managed by a Nigerian – the former Minister of Finance of Nigeria, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, the IMF (IMF – International Monetary Fund ), WB (SB – World Bank), ADB (African Development Bank), ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African Countries), OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) and also APC, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO. Nigeria also occupies an important place in the following international organizations: British Commonwealth, Ozone Layer Protection (Kyoto Protocol), International Cocoa Organization, International Institute for Cotton, West African Groundnut Council (West African Groundnut Producers Committee), International Tin Council (International Tin Producers Committee). As a decisive regional economic power, Nigeria plays a vital role in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The seat of the Organization Commission is Abuja. Nigeria plays an important role in OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries). Check relationshipsplus for Nigeria defense and foreign policy.


Population: 201 million (World Bank 2019) ·

Aged 15-64: 53.8% ·

Average annual population growth: 2.6% per year ·

Average age: 18.2 years

Ethnic composition: · Hausa/Fulani – (29%, North of the Federation) · Yoruba – (21%, South-West of the Federation) · Igbo – (18%, South-East) · Ijaw – (10%) · Kanuri – (4%) · Ibibio – (3.5%) · Tiv – (2.5%) · Bura, Nupe and other almost 250 small ethnic groups – 10% · also Lebanese, Indians and other nationalities – 1%.

Religious composition: · Muslims – 50% · Christians – 40% · Traditional religions – 10%

The official language throughout the territory of the Nigerian federation is English. Members of each nation use their own language among themselves, the most widespread being Hausa and Yoruba, followed by Igbo and Fulani; these languages ​​are taught in schools alongside English.