|State system||presidential republic|
|Head of State||Mohamed Bazoum|
|Head of government||Mohamed Bazoum|
|Currency name||West African Franc (XOF)|
|Time shift||1 hour (in summer -0 hour)|
|Nominal GDP (billion USD)||51.8|
|Economic growth (%)||4.8|
Niger (République du Niger) belongs to the group of least developed countries, it is a Sahel country without access to the sea, ¾ of the territory is covered by desert. 85% of the population lives in a 150 km wide strip along the southern border. Niger is a unitary republic practicing a presidential system of power with the existence of multiple political parties. The President is elected in direct elections for five years (maximum two terms). The government is headed by the president, who shares some executive powers with the prime minister appointed by him. On 27 December 2020, general elections were held in Niger to elect a president and a national assembly. Mohamed Bazoum was declared the winner in the second round with 55.67% of the vote, and for the first time in African history, there was a smooth transfer of power from former President Issoufou to the new one.
Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Niger (République du Niger) belongs to the group of least developed countries, it is a Sahel country without access to the sea, ¾ of the territory is covered by desert. 85% of the population lives along the southern border. It is bordered by Algeria, Libya, Chad, Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali. The unclear demarcation of international borders has led to border incidents in the past near Lake Chad in the west of the country (the common border between Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria). Niger is a unitary republic practicing a presidential system of power with the existence of multiple political parties. The President is elected in direct elections for five years (maximum two terms). The government is headed by the president, who shares some executive powers with the prime minister appointed by him. The government is also appointed by the president. Legislative power is vested by the constitution in the unicameral National Assembly, where 113 MPs sit. Compliance with constitutionality is overseen by the Constitutional Court (7 judges appointed by the president for a period of 6 years). The new constitution was adopted in a referendum on 31/10/2010. The second half of 2020 was affected by the upcoming presidential elections and the deteriorating security situation in the country. In June, the government decided that neither the parliamentary nor the presidential elections scheduled for December 2020 would be postponed due to the pandemic. At the end of June, Interior Minister Mohamed Bazoum left the government in order to devote himself fully to the presidential campaign. Bazoum is the candidate of the ruling party PNDS (Parti Nigérien pour la démocratie et le socialisme). On 27 December 2020, general elections were held in Niger to elect a president and a national assembly. As no presidential candidate received a majority of the vote, a second round took place on 21 February 2021. Check computerminus to learn more about Niger political system.
Foreign policy of the country
Niger is a member country of the Economic Community of West African Countries ECOWAS/CEDEAO. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was created in 1975 and currently has 15 member countries – Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Cape Verde, Niger, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. The seat of the Organization Commission is Abuja. The main goal of ECOWAS is the creation of a customs, economic and monetary union, while the ultimate goal is the creation of a functional economic and monetary union, convergence of the macroeconomic policies of the member countries and mutual harmonization of sectoral economic policies, uniform external tariffs and the removal of existing internal trade barriers. ECOWAS is also establishing a Court of Justice where entities and citizens will be able to address cases related to ECOWAS agendas. ECOWAS countries agreed at the end of 2000 to establish a common central bank and introduce a common currency from 2003, but this has not yet happened (and will not happen in the foreseeable future). Niger has held the presidency of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) since July 2019. Niger, from its position as chairman of the community, played an important mediating role in efforts to resolve the situation in Mali. Niger successfully chaired the UN Security Council in September 2020, and will hold another one-month presidency in December 2021. Like most francophone countries (with the exception of Guinea), Niger is also a member of the WAEMU/UEMOA Economic and Monetary Union and uses a single currency – the West African franc, which is pegged to Euro (www.uemoa.int). Check relationshipsplus for Niger defense and foreign policy.
- Population: 2million.
- Population density: 1inhabitants/km2
- Economically active population: million.
- Average annual growth of the population and its demographic composition: 3.28% (7th place in the world).
Age composition: • 0-14 years: 49.8% • 15-64 years: 46.9% • over 65 years: 3.3% Niger is a multi-ethnic state (approx. 60 ethnic groups).
Ethnic groups: • Hausa • Djerma (Sonrai) • Peul • Fulani • Tuareg • Kanouri • Lebanese, Nigerians, French also live in Niger.
The main religion in Niger is Islam (followed by about 80% of the population). The rest are Christians and animists.