New Zealand Population and Economy

By | December 1, 2021

Population

When the first Europeans arrived in New Zealand, the territory was inhabited by the Maori, a population of Polynesian lineage far from primitive, divided into groups and dedicated to agriculture and some industries. The true aborigines would be the Moors (i.e. the people lower according to the Maori), perhaps related to the Melanesians, gatherers and hunters who lived in caves; overwhelmed by the Maori, they were driven back to the South Island or Chatham, where they partly merged with them. White penetration occurred massively in the mid 19th century. The relations, at first quite calm, between Whites and Maori deteriorated when the former seized the lands with violence and imposed themselves with all sorts of harassment and abuse. Armed conflicts followed with the inevitable defeat of the Maori, whose number began to decrease until, at the end of the 19th century, they feared their definitive extinction (in 1896 there were about 42,000 individuals). For New Zealand 2008, please check payhelpcenter.com.

The population of New Zealand is homogeneous not only from an ethnic point of view (91% are white), but also for origin within the same white group, as it is almost entirely European and descended from British and Irish immigrants: homogeneity which has its foundations in the scarce numerical entity of the natives at the time of discovery and subsequent colonization, as well as in the strict control of immigration.

The country’s demographic trend was positive throughout the 20th century, with only one break in the second half of the 1970s and the following decade. The natural increase concerned the entire population, with a higher incidence in the ethnic group of the Maori, which at the 2001 census was 526,281 individuals, almost doubled in the intercensual five-year period and made up 14% of the total population; the component of European origin represents 67.6% (2005). The demographic strengthening of the Maori and their progressive literacy have made this people more and more aware of their cultural identity and their rights. A movement of ethnic, economic and territorial claims was born that has been openly in conflict with the authorities of the country since the late 1980s,

The New Zealand population is increasingly urbanized (87% in 2008).

The prevalent religion is the Protestant Christian (17.9%), followed by the Catholic (13%); 27.5% of the population declared themselves non-religious.

Economic conditions

Agriculture and livestock, complementary to each other, remained for a long time, with the related industrial and commercial activities, the pillars of the economic structure of New Zealand and, at the same time, the reasons for its prosperity until the crisis of the years. 1980, determined above all by the increase in oil prices, and which forced it, like neighboring Australia, to loosen the ties that bound it to the British motherland and to the other Commonwealth countries and to get closer to the new political-economic realities of ‘East Asia, as well as to carve out a role for itself in the Pacific area. The New Zealand then overcame its problems and achieved a new prosperity, not without internal traumas, essentially due to a merciless policy of liberalization and cuts in public spending; however, it was touched by the consequences of the crisis that hit Asian countries in the late 1990s and was even more severely hit by the global crisis of 2008-09. For its GDP pro capital of 34,121 dollars (2008), which ensures the residents economic well-being, but above all for the good health and cultural conditions and the satisfactory quality of life, New Zealand certainly ranks among the developed countries. The excellent organization of public services in general and in particular those relating to education, which guarantee a very high level of ‘scholastic quality’, contributed above all to the achievement of these satisfactory goals. For its GDP pro capital of 34,121 dollars (2008), which ensures the residents economic well-being, but above all for the good health and cultural conditions and the satisfactory quality of life, New Zealand certainly ranks among the developed countries. The excellent organization of public services in general and in particular those relating to education, which guarantee a very high level of ‘scholastic quality’, contributed above all to the achievement of these satisfactory goals. For its GDP pro capital of 34,121 dollars (2008), which ensures the residents economic well-being, but above all for the good health and cultural conditions and the satisfactory quality of life, New Zealand certainly ranks among the developed countries. The excellent organization of public services in general and in particular those relating to education, which guarantee a very high level of ‘scholastic quality’, contributed above all to the achievement of these satisfactory goals.

Among the primary activities, breeding prevails: in addition to sheep farming, for which New Zealand, with 40 million heads in 2006, is the sixth country in the world, cattle breeding is also relevant (9.6 million heads including buffaloes). It follows that New Zealand is one of the main producers of wool (the third in the world), butter (the sixth), cheeses and meat: all goods, even widely exported. Also noteworthy is the production and export of some agricultural products (vegetables and fruit), of the timber obtained both from the extensive southern natural forests and from plantation forests, and the fishing activity.

The modest demographic size, and therefore of the internal market, in addition to the country’s position, secluded and far from the main areas of demand, have prevented New Zealand from setting up a large industrial apparatus, hampered among other things by the scarcity of energy sources. The main processing activities are those of the steel, mechanical and petrochemical branches, mainly located in Auckland and Christchurch, and those connected with rural activities (food and wool factories scattered throughout the country). The service sector is also expanding. The original and evocative elements of the natural landscape (geysers, waterfalls, endemic or otherwise rare flora and fauna species), protected and enhanced by a careful protection policy.

New Zealand Economy