New Zealand History Summary

By | December 1, 2021

New Zealand State of Oceania. The NZ archipelago was inhabited from the 10th to the 14th century. by Polynesian populations that arrived in various waves from the Cook Islands and perhaps Hawaii. In 1642-43 the Dutchman AJ Tasman skirted the western parts of the two major islands; the complete survey of the coasts and the first internal penetration were the work of J. Cook (1769-72). In the following years the fame of the ferocity of the indigenous peoples prevented any colonial settlement or missionary initiative, while on the southern coasts and around the Cook Strait English, American and French whaling hunters began to call. Hence the decimation of the natives, also as a result of the trafficking of tattooed and smoked human heads. Great Britain began to intervene in 1835; created a Company of NZ, in 1840, with the Treaty of Waitangi, the Maori leaders accepted British sovereignty against the recognition of possession of the territories traditionally belonging to them. Erected colony of the Crown in 1841, the arrival of new settlers and the indiscriminate purchase of tribal lands led to bloody riots, which were only appeased in 1872. Later, thanks to the discovery of gold, the development of agriculture and livestock of livestock began a vigorous economic rise, accompanied by the adoption of one of the most advanced social legislation of the time. It was in fact the first country in the world to recognize the right to vote for women (1893), as well as instituting an old-age pension and adopting a land law that allowed workers access to land. Dominion in 1907, after the First World War, in which it took part alongside Great Britain, NZ became a sovereign member state of the Commonwealth (1931). For New Zealand 2013, please check physicscat.com.

After years of liberal governments, the expression of ranchers and farmers, the collapse of agricultural prices due to the crisis of 1929 marked the ruin of the country and led to the formation of the first Labor government in 1935. Emanation of the citizen class, this created a social security system among the most advanced and an economy oriented towards protectionism. After the Second World War, NZ experienced a period of great economic prosperity, with a political system characterized by alternating between the National party and the Labor party. Alongside these, in the nineties the participation of minor political forces increased, which coalesced in 1991 in the alliance called Alliance, who became the interpreter of the growing discontent aroused by the austerity measures launched by the conservative government of J. Bolger, in office since 1990: privatization of state-owned companies and drastic cuts to the social security system. In the 1993 legislative elections, the National party still obtained the majority and J. Bolger led the executive. He thus found himself facing the protests of the Maori community, which demanded greater economic, social and cultural opportunities and the revision of the Waitangi Treaty. The issue was resolved with the signing of an agreement (1995) for which land illegally acquired by European settlers in the 1860s was partly compensated and partly returned. In an uncertain political situation, the 1996 elections came, which still saw the National party and Bolger as the head of another coalition government prevail, but also the accentuation of instability. In sharp decline in popularity, Bolger was forced the following year to leave the leadership of the party and therefore of the executive to J. Shipley. The 1999 elections brought Labor back to government, whose leader H. Clark, appointed premier, launched an economic and social program in contrast with the neoliberal policies of his predecessors; thanks to it, to the favorable trend of the economy and the reduction in unemployment, it was reconfirmed also in 2005. In 2008 the conservatives returned to government, led by J. Key.

New Zealand History Summary