New Zealand 2016

By | December 1, 2021

Population, society and rights

About 60% of the New Zealand population is of European descent, mainly English and Scottish. About 8% of the population is indigenous and belongs to the Maori ethnic group, of Polynesian origin. The number of people of Asian origin stands at the same percentage, while people from the nearby Pacific islands represent about 5% of the population. The greatest demographic concentration is found in the North Island and in the urban areas, first of all in Auckland, where about one third of the population resides. The use of the English language and the good standards of the education system attract a large number of foreign students to New Zealand which, when compared to the total population, make it one of the first countries in the world for foreign students per capita. This favors a considerable economic induced.GDP devolved to school and research is equal to 7.4%, a percentage two and a half points higher than in neighboring Australia. For New Zealand 1997, please check

New Zealand’s socio-economic environment benefits from high levels of democratization and transparency, making New Zealand the seventh country in the world on the UN Human Development Index and the least corrupt country in the world. Gender equality is also strongly protected: the ranking of nations at the forefront of reducing the gender gap drawn up by the World Economic Forum in 2014 sees New Zealand in twelfth place. Women manage to achieve leading roles in both the private and public sectors, as evidenced by 29.8% of the parliamentary seats they hold.

Economy and energy

In recent decades, the New Zealand economy has been freeing itself from dependence on the agricultural sector and has developed the industrial and tertiary sectors. The policy of stimulating consumption, aimed at favoring economic development, however, initially generated a significant increase in debt, as well as a deterioration in the trade balance. It is no coincidence that the Key government has set the reduction of the budget deficit as the long-term objective of its fiscal policy, which for the 2013-14 fiscal year dropped significantly, falling below 1% of GDP. The year 2014-15 records a performance even better with the deficit stopped at 0.2%, and projections indicate a return to the surplus in 2016. These objectives will be achieved thanks to an ambitious program based on the reduction of public spending, privatization and increase in tax revenues.

Investments, which have grown over the past three years thanks to the reconstruction effort in the area around Christchurch – hit by earthquakes in September 2010 and February 2011 – are expected to continue to drive economic growth, along with growth in private consumption, which is steadily rising since 2010. The New Zealand economy is also benefiting from the gradual recovery in exports, the effect of the easing of the global economic crisis. New Zealand has reserves of gas and oil, however insufficient to meet domestic demand. Oil is the most used primary energy resource, despite the high percentage weight of renewable energies in the national energy mix. Clean energies favor relatively low rates of CO 2 emissions, both in absolute terms and per capita. As much as 23% of the energy consumed is produced from renewable sources.

Defense and security

One of the cornerstones of New Zealand’s foreign and security policy is denuclearization. The creation, in 1984, of a nuclear-free area in the waters surrounding the country, with the consequent ban on docking and transit for ships carrying nuclear technology or weapons, was the basis for the cooling of relations with Washington and the rift. internal policy of Anzus. However, military collaboration between the two countries has regained new vigor following the rapprochement desired by US President Barack Obama and New Zealand Prime Minister John Key. Between 2010 and 2012, Wellington and Washington agreed on a renewed partnership strategic guarantor of the security of the Pacific area and for the launch of joint political-military meetings on a regular basis. The partnership then extended beyond the Asian-Pacific theater, with New Zealand having deployed 143 ground units in Iraq with training duties to combat the Islamic State.

Furthermore, New Zealand is linked to Australia, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom by means of bilateral defense agreements (‘Five Power Defense Agreements’), signed in 1971 and still in force. New Zealand ranks fourth in the ranking of the most peaceful countries in the world, according to the Institute for Economics and Peace. In 2010, 12 years later, the New Zealand government published the first “Defense White Paper” and thus disclosed the main threats to national security for the coming decades. The ‘White paper’ will be renewed in 2015, but the strategic challenges for Wellington remain the same. The main risk factors are competition for maritime resources and illegal immigration, while, more generally, the destabilizing potential for the country and the region of the tensions in the South China Sea and the Korean peninsula, as well as the long-standing Taiwan issue, is highlighted. Even in the military field, the partnership with Canberra is of primary importance, since the investments necessary for defense development come from Australia.

New Zealand 2016