New Zealand 2007

By | December 1, 2021

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

Island state of Oceania located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. According to estimates by the New Zealand Institute of Statistics, the population in 2005 stood at 4,082,400 residents, with a density of 15 residents / km 2. The positive demographic dynamics of the last decades, mainly attributable to natural balances, are confirmed. The age structure of the population, despite a slow aging process, still appears very young (21 % of the population is included in the age group from 0 to 15 years). This characteristic is even more pronounced for the Maori ethnic group, whose consistency in 2005it was estimated at 635,100 units (16 % of the total). Over three quarters of the total population are concentrated in the North Island, where the main urban areas are located, among which Auckland (which exceeded 1,240,000 residents), the capital Wellington (with about 370,000 residents in the agglomeration) urban), Hamilton (185,000 residents), while Christchurch is the largest city on the South Island (just under 368,000 residents). Altogether 72 % of the population resides in centers with more than 40,000 residents, while the rural population appears to be definitely decreasing. The presence of citizens of different ethnic groups is growing: at the 2001 census, the foreign population originating from the Pacific area had been overtaken by the Asian one (mainly Chinese, Indians and Koreans). For New Zealand 2010, please check programingplease.com.

As regards the economy, the strong positive dynamics that characterized New Zealand since the end of the 1990s (growth rates of 4% per annum) seems to diminish. The recent slowdown in the economy is mainly attributable to the progressive appreciation of the New Zealand dollar against the US dollar and to the parallel negative situation that characterized the economies of the main trading partners (Australia, United States and Japan). These elements, in an economy among the most open in the world, have weakened the fundamental factor of development represented by foreign trade, centered above all on raw materials and agricultural products (in particular, meat and wood). The internal market is also less dynamic; however, the good levels of private consumption, also supported by a very low unemployment rate (3.8%), and the significant investments in residential construction have contributed not a little to the substantial stability of the New Zealand economy which, for 2005, with a GDP growth rate of around 2.8 %, was above the average of the countries OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).

The primary sector still plays a prominent role and the transformation industry, traditionally oriented towards the domestic market, has also appeared in international markets in recent years. But it is above all tourism that represents a rapidly expanding sector, contributing significantly to the consolidation of the entire economic system. From 1985 to 2000 arrivals tripled (reaching around 2 million), while more recent estimates indicate 2004 was a record year for the sector, with around 2.3 million arrivals. The flows of visitors are attracted by the enormous naturalistic heritage which counts as many as 13 national parks, of which three (Tongariro, Te Wahipounamu, Sub-Antarctic Islands) have been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Numerous cultural and folkloric events are also held, such as the New Zealand International Arts Festival and the Marlborough Wine and Food Festival.

HISTORY

The traditional clash between the main political parties of the country, the Labor Party and the National Party, which alternated in power since the Second World War, revolved, in the early years of the new century, essentially on two issues: the relaunch of social policies and legislation in favor of the Maori, the indigenous population pre-existing the conquest of the European colonizers and subject to severe discrimination. The political campaign for the legislative elections of November 1999, which, won by Labor, led to the formation of a new executive led for the first time by a woman, H. Clark, and supported, as well as by the Labor Party, was centered on these issues. by the deployment called Alliance, a center-left coalition that included ecological groups and Maori representatives. The new prime minister placed among the priorities of his mandate the reduction of social disparities, new investments in the public health service and in education – to be financed by an increase in the taxation of the highest incomes -, a brake on privatization and a policy in favor of of the Maori, to facilitate their integration in the economic and social sphere. The government’s decision to provide logistical support to the United States after the September 11, 2001 attacksin New York and Washington, in the fight against terrorism and in military actions in Afghānistān, he created a rift within the majority between the moderate wing and the more radical wing opposed to support for US politics; this weakened the executive, but did not affect the popularity of the majority party.

The elections of August 2002 confirmed the Labor Party in power, which won 52 seats against the 27 of the National Party ; Alliance failed to overcome the 5 % barrier and did not even get a seat. Unable to count on Alliance support, Clark formed a coalition government with some minor center formations, including the United Future New Zealand (8 seats) and the Progressive Coalition Party (2 seats).), which gave the executive a more moderate stance. In the following years the government policy towards the Maori was attacked, for opposite reasons, both from the right and from the left, putting the executive in serious difficulty. Clark, fearing a rise in consensus from conservatives ahead of the 2005 general elections, chose to win over the moderate electorate and announced a restrictive change in legislation in favor of the indigenous population, appealing to the principle that conditions of privilege could not be created. for some categories of citizens. Harshly opposed by the forces of the intransigent left, the government still managed to impose itself again in the political elections of September 2005, in which, for the third consecutive time, the Labor Party obtained the majority of the votes (50 seats). A notable success was achieved by the National Party, which had conducted an electoral campaign with a strongly populist tone focused on the tax cut and the revocation of the laws in favor of the Maori, once again reaching percentages very close to those of its antagonist (48 seats). The recently formed Maory Party (2004) won 4 seats instead. In October 2005, Clark formed a coalition executive with the Progressive Party (1seat) and with the external support of the center parties, New Zealand First (7 seats) and United Future New Zealand (3 seats); the new government reiterated, in 2006, the priority of state investment in the public sector and infrastructure.

The country’s foreign policy has been characterized in recent years by taking a stance against the US attack on Irāq (2003), judged negatively because it was carried out without the endorsement of the UN. This contributed to delaying the settlement of the trade disputes between NZ and Washington.

New Zealand 2007