New Zealand 1979

By | December 1, 2021

On the occasion of the demographic census of 1961, the NZ carried out an administrative reorganization, dismembering the statistical area of ​​Auckland, at the northern end, into 4 new districts. of the North Island, and slightly retouching the two boroughs of Otago, at the southern end. of the South Island. In 1965, moreover, the atoll of Niue (pop. 4990) and the Cook Islands with dependencies (pop. 21.227) obtained full internal self-government. At the 1971 demographic census the population of NZ was 2,862,631 residents (3,105,400 in 1975), of which 8% Maori, showing an increase of 20.7% compared to a decade ago. 80% of the increase was absorbed by North Island – generating a real conurbation phenomenon around Auckland, which counts about 800,000 residents – and only 20% is located in the South Island, with particular evidence around Christchurch, whose area now embraces 327,000 residents. Another rapidly growing conurbation is that of the capital, Wellington, where 355,000 people gather. Overall 81.5% of the total population was classified as urban. For New Zealand history, please check ehistorylib.com.

Economy. – In 1969, after the collapse in wool prices caused an acute economic crisis, the National Development Conference established a long-term development plan, the objectives of which include an average annual increase of 4.5% for gross national production and 6.6% for exports. The results of this plan are already evident. As regards the primary sector, which occupies 12% of the active population, there was an increase of over 300,000 ha of arable land between 1960 and 1972 (from 2% to 3.1% of the territorial surface), while it remains substantially unchanged. the extension of natural meadows and pastures (48.7%). Wheat remained on virtually unchanged positions (59,000 ha and 2,030,000 q in 1975), while barley has quadrupled both the area and production (119,000 ha and 3,340,000 q) and corn has made much progress larger (25,000 ha and 2,050,000 q); the other cereals show less dynamism, among which, however, the potato stands out (9000 ha and 2.380.000 q). Fruit and vegetable crops (tomatoes, pears, apple trees) are also growing sharply, mainly in the regions of Auckland, Hastings, Nelson and Otago. Unlike cereals, which are insufficient for internal needs, they are able to supply moderate quantities for export. Agriculture, however, still appears to be sacrificed to the needs of farming (55.5 million sheep, 9.7 million cattle, 500,000 pigs in 1975), which remains the basis of the New Zealand economy and with its products and related industrial activities (2 million q of washed wool, 900,000 q of cheese, 2.4 million q of butter, frozen meat, skins) contributes 75-80% to the value of exports. Unlike cereals, which are insufficient for internal needs, they are able to supply moderate quantities for export. Agriculture, however, still appears to be sacrificed to the needs of farming (55.5 million sheep, 9.7 million cattle, 500,000 pigs in 1975), which remains the basis of the New Zealand economy and with its products and related industrial activities (2 million q of washed wool, 900,000 q of cheese, 2.4 million q of butter, frozen meat, skins) contributes 75-80% to the value of exports. Unlike cereals, which are insufficient for internal needs, they are able to supply moderate quantities for export. Agriculture, however, still appears to be sacrificed to the needs of farming (55.5 million sheep, 9.7 million cattle, 500,000 pigs in 1975), which remains the basis of the New Zealand economy and with its products and related industrial activities (2 million q of washed wool, 900,000 q of cheese, 2.4 million q of butter, frozen meat, skins) contributes 75-80% to the value of exports.

The use of the forest mantle has also taken on some importance, which in 1974 supplied 8.7 million m 3 of timber, 2.1 million m 3 of sawn timber, 465,000 t of mechanical pulp and 465,000 t of chemical pulp., while little attention is paid to fishing, despite the increase in fish caught (69,000 t), which, due to the large availability of cheap animal proteins, occupies a secondary position for food purposes for the local population.

As regards the exploitation of underground resources, the production of coal (395,000 t in 1974), lignite (2.2 million t), gold (147 kg) and silver is in sharp decline; on the other hand, that of bentonite (11,575 t), iron (1000 t) and, above all, oil (156,000 t in 1973) and gas (303 million m 3), is increasing.), recently discovered in the Taranaki area. The gas already supplies some cities on the North Island, including Auckland and Wellington. Overall, however, the energy resources of the subsoil are irrelevant compared to the great wealth of water resources, which in the last decade have made it possible to double the production of electricity (4,449,000 kW installed, of which 3,590,000 of water origin, and 18,352 million kWh) with the commissioning of a series of new power plants, mostly on the Waitaki and Waikato rivers. Furthermore, a ten-year plan drawn up in 1968 provides for an increase to 24 billion kWh by 1978.

The manufacturing activity, mainly based on the transformation of agricultural and livestock products, is rapidly strengthening and diversifying. The workers in the secondary sector, equal to 47% of the active population, are divided for 28% in the basic industry, for 54.4% in the manufacturing industry and for 17.5% in the construction industry. Among the most important projects of recent date are the steel plants of Otahuhu and Glenbrook, the oil refinery of Marsden Point (near Whangarei) and the factories for the assembly of motor vehicles in Auckland and Christchurch. Among the manufacturing branches, moreover, notable progress has been made in the clothing industry, whose factories surpass the food ones, and the tire industry.

The value of exports (1,800 million New Zealand dollars in 1975), as mentioned, comes for the most part from livestock products, while imports (2,600 million dollars) are fueled for more than half by raw products, semi-finished products and capital goods. and for the rest from consumer goods, fuels and means of transport. NZ’s main customers and suppliers are the UK, Australia, Japan, the US and Canada.

History. – The search for international identification and economic development not without difficulties and crises characterized NZ in the years 1960-75. The early 1960s had marked a notable increase in production, exports and imports at the same time, which testifies to the vitality of the New Zealand economy but also to its insufficient autonomy. From this stemmed the concerns for the ventilated accession of Great Britain to the EEC (England being Wellington’s largest trading partner), the search for new markets, the diversification of production, the development of new industries, favored by new discoveries in the energy sector., and the search for a dialogue with the EEC itself together with an active policy in the most important financial fora of the West. Foreign policy gradually passes from an activity limited to the Commonwealth sphere to a more differentiated commitment in the Southeast Asian area: the commitment to Vietnam and the shift from British to American influence of New Zealand politics are the most important factors. relevant. International competition, rising costs and wages, unemployment, inflation and devaluation are problems that plague NZ as well as Western nations, despite rising exports and production dynamics. Direct agreements with the EEC are necessary to be able to safeguard their products, especially after the entry of London. When in 1972 Kirk’s Labor took over from Southeast Asia area: the commitment to Vietnam and the shift from British to American influence in New Zealand politics are the most relevant factors. International competition, rising costs and wages, unemployment, inflation and devaluation are problems that plague NZ as well as Western nations, despite rising exports and production dynamics. Direct agreements with the EEC are necessary to be able to safeguard their products, especially after the entry of London. When in 1972 Kirk’s Labor took over from Southeast Asia area: the commitment to Vietnam and the shift from British to American influence in New Zealand politics are the most relevant factors. International competition, rising costs and wages, unemployment, inflation and devaluation are problems that plague NZ as well as Western nations, despite rising exports and production dynamics. Direct agreements with the EEC are necessary to be able to safeguard their products, especially after the entry of London. When in 1972 Kirk’s Labor took over from inflation and devaluation are problems that afflict NZ as well as Western nations, despite the increase in exports and the dynamics of production. Direct agreements with the EEC are necessary to be able to safeguard their products, especially after the entry of London. When in 1972 Kirk’s Labor took over from inflation and devaluation are problems that afflict NZ as well as Western nations, despite the increase in exports and the dynamics of production. Direct agreements with the EEC are necessary to be able to safeguard their products, especially after the entry of London. When in 1972 Kirk’s Labor took over from leadership of the Holyoake National Party, profound changes occur both in the conduct of economic policy (increase in state spending for social reforms, tax cuts) and in foreign policy (recognition of People’s China, questioning the validity of the SEATO, close alliance with Whitlam’s Australia). The deterioration of the economic and monetary situation brings the conservatives of the PN back to power, led by Muldoon, in 1975.

New Zealand 1979