Netherlands 1994

By | December 1, 2021

The Netherlands, which extend over an area of ​​33,937 km 2 (41,526 with inland waters), remain the most densely populated country in Europe (446 residents / km 2 in 1992), followed at a considerable distance by Belgium (328 residents / km 2). Over the last twenty years, the Netherlands population has increased by over 2 million units, partly as a consequence of the high natural balance (which however dropped to 4.6ı in 1991: 13.2ı the birth rate and 8.6ı the of mortality), and in part of immigration. In 1992 there were 733,000 immigrants (against 296,800 in 1973), mostly of Turkish origin (30% of the total) and Moroccan. 90% of the Netherlands population lives in urban areas. The Randstad, the ” ring city ”, born from the merger of the main Dutch urban areas, gathers 40% of the population in less than a fifth of the land area. In the province of South Holland the population density reaches 1140 residents / km 2. For Netherlands democracy and rights, please check intershippingrates.com.

In land use there is an increase in both cultivated areas (from 22.8% in 1977 to 25% in 1991), and uncultivated and unproductive (from 35.5% to 36.7%) at the expense of areas with meadows and pastures (which in the same period fell from 33.6% in 1977 to 29.4%). Dutch agriculture, proverbial for its efficiency and organization, boasts the highest productivity in the world. About half of the arable land is cultivated with cereals (wheat, 139,000 ha for 10.2 million q in 1992; barley, 39,000 ha for 2.2 million q; oats, 3000 ha for 160,000 q). Potato cultivation is always widespread, for both food and industrial use (70.4 million q on 175,000 ha), and sugar beet (86.3 million q on 125,000 ha), but horticulture is continually gaining ground. fruit growing (pears, apples, plums) and above all floriculture, bulb growing and nursery. Thanks to advanced techniques and a high quality level, the latter characterize the agriculture of the Netherlands more and more clearly, which nevertheless derive the greatest income in the primary sector from breeding: cattle, 4,920,000 heads (1992); pigs, 14,161,000; sheep, 1,954,000; meat, 2,621,000 t; milk, 11,180,000 t. Given the well-known crises of Community surplus, only butter (163,000 t) and cheese (634,000 t) are in decline. Netherlands maintain a good position in fishing (438.300 t of catch in 1990) and in the related processing industry. agriculture of the Netherlands, which nevertheless derive the greatest income from the primary sector from livestock: cattle, 4,920,000 head (1992); pigs, 14,161,000; sheep, 1,954,000; meat, 2,621,000 t; milk, 11,180,000 t. Given the well-known crises of Community surplus, only butter (163,000 t) and cheese (634,000 t) are in decline. Netherlands maintain a good position in fishing (438.300 t of catch in 1990) and in the related processing industry. agriculture of the Netherlands, which nevertheless derive the greatest income from the primary sector from livestock: cattle, 4,920,000 head (1992); pigs, 14,161,000; sheep, 1,954,000; meat, 2,621,000 t; milk, 11,180,000 t. Given the well-known crises of Community surplus, only butter (163,000 t) and cheese (634,000 t) are in decline. Netherlands maintain a good position in fishing (438.300 t of catch in 1990) and in the related processing industry.

In the energy sector, the Netherlands can count on good oil production (3,258,000 t in 1991; Coevorden-Schoonebeek and Rijswijk fields; refineries near Rotterdam and Amsterdam). Compared to the 1970s, natural gas production has instead decreased (81,666 million m 3 in 1991; Bierum, Schildmeer, Slochteren, Noordbroek fields). After the closure of the Limburg wells, coal production is now irrelevant. Electricity production (74,553 million kWh in 1991, almost entirely of thermal origin; less than 1% from thermonuclear energy; nuclear power plants in Dodewaard and Borsele) is constantly increasing.

Despite the reputation of a large agricultural country, privileged supplier of foodstuffs for Germany, in reality the Netherlands are now a large industrialized country which, despite not having abandoned the traditional activities of processing raw materials from the former colonies (tobacco manufacturing, sugar refineries) and the always profitable diamond processing, now points to large industry and high technology, largely controlled by important multinationals. In 1991 the steel industry produced 4.7 million tonnes of pig iron and ferro-alloys, and 5.2 million tonnes of steel. Also noteworthy is the processing of non-ferrous metals (zinc, lead and aluminum). The shipbuilding industry lives up to its fame, but the tonnage of the ships launched is decreasing (173,000 gross tonnage in 1991). On the other hand, the automotive industry recorded a setback (84,709 cars and 13,915 commercial vehicles produced in 1991), while the chemical industries are expanding: synthetic fibers, nitrogen fertilizers (1.8 million t in 1990), synthetic rubber (236,600 t) and plastics. The trade balance, in deficit at the end of the 1970s, remained positive in the 1980s and early 1990s.

The high development achieved by the country is demonstrated by the diffusion and functionality of the ways and means of communication. On Dutch roads and motorways (105,000 km) there are 6.5 million cars, of which 5.7 million cars, with a ratio of one car to every 2.5 residents. The railway network is also efficient for the transport of both passengers and goods. The fluvial network (5046 km of rivers and navigable canals), which is an integral part of the imposing port structures, remains of great importance. The commercial fleet counts 1076 ships with a gross tonnage of 3.4 million t (1992). Air navigation is rapidly expanding. The international airports of Schiphol / Amsterdam and Rotterdam are important hubs of world traffic (188 million km flown and 28.7 billion passengers / km in 1991-92).

Economic and financial policy. – After a prolonged period of income and domestic demand stagnation, the Netherlands economy has shown signs of recovery since 1983. Growth was initially driven by foreign demand. The competitive position of Netherlands has in fact strengthened considerably following the moderate wage dynamics recorded since 1978. This allowed for a rapid increase in exports of goods and services when, in 1984, world trade was particularly lively.. However, export growth has stabilized since 1986. Since then, the development of the Dutch economy has been driven by domestic demand, fueled by rising real income from the industrial sector and households.

Private consumption grew by 3% in 1986, mainly following the decline in the rate of inflation and the increase in remuneration. Despite a certain slowdown in 1987, the growth of the economy continued in the following two years, also characterized by limited rates of price increases and large current account surpluses (over 7 billion dollars a year).

On the other hand, the reduction of the public deficit was very slow. In the first half of the 1980s, the deficit fluctuated around 6% of GDP. The government re-elected in 1986 also had to face the marked decrease in the prices of energy products. The income from these products fell by 60% in 1987; in the same year, the total income of the state decreased by about 8%. To address this situation, the government has implemented a program aimed at reducing the public deficit. Only in the 1990s was there a marked reduction in the deficit which, in 1993, despite the recession in the Dutch economy, fell below 3%.

Important changes were introduced during the 1980s in the labor market. Between 1960 and 1980 the Dutch authorities had played an important role in the process of wage formation and labor market regulation; they also offered direct employment opportunities in the public sector or in related sectors, such as health and education. Employment in the public sector had thus increased by more than 50% between 1967 and 1981, with a particularly high increase between 1974 and 1977, when the first shock oil had reduced activity and employment in the private sector. This policy was particularly effective in keeping employment growth considerably higher than that recorded by the main European partners.

However, since 1981 the public sector’s ability to increase employment has been limited by rising public deficits. Thus in 1981-82, when the Dutch economy fell into a recession, the unemployment rate rose rapidly, reaching 12% in 1983-84. To address this situation, the government, after recommending wage moderation to relaunch employment, withdrew from the tripartite commission on wages, leaving the determination of the latter to the social partners. In 1985 they agreed on a limitation on wage indexation and a 5% reduction in working hours. These measures allowed for a decrease in the unemployment rate of almost 4 percentage points between 1984 and 1993.

Netherlands 1994