Nepal Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Nepal Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official State Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (Nepal)

President : Bidya Devi Bhandari (in office from 13/03/2018)

Composition of the government:

The government appointed and directed by the President of the Republic has a total of 22 cabinet ministers and 3 state ministers. The current composition of the government is as follows:

Cabinet Ministers:

Prime Minister: Sher Bahadur Deuba

Home Minister: Bal Krishna Khand

Foreign Minister: Narayan Khadka

Finance Minister: Janardan Sharma

Minister for Industries, Commerce and Supplies: Dilendra Prasad Badu

Transport and Physical Infrastructure Minister: Renu Kumari Yadav

Minister for Power, Water Resources and Irrigation: Pampha Bhusal

Minister of Defense: Mr. Sher Bahadur Deuba

Minister for Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs: Govinda Prasad Sharma (Koirala)

Minister of Labour, Employment and Social Security: Krishna Kumar Shrestha

Agriculture Minister: Mahendra Rai Yadav

Minister of Land Management and Poverty Alleviation: Shashi Shrestha

Youth and Sports Minister: Maheshwar Jung Gahatraj (Aathak)

Forest and Environment Minister: Ramsahay Prasad Yadav

Urban Development Minister: Ram Kumari Jhakri

Minister of Information and Communications: Gyanendra Bahadur Karki

Minister of Education, Science and Technology: Devendra Paudel

General Administration Federal Affairs Minister: Rajendra Prasad Shrestha

Minister for Water Supply: Umakanta Chaudhari

Health and Population Minister: Birodh Khatiwada

Minister for Women, Children and Senior Citizens: Uma Regmi

Minister of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation: Prem Bahadur Ale

Political tendencies:

Nepal is a federal parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. The executive power is exercised by the prime minister and his cabinet, the legislative power is entrusted to the parliament. The ruling Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal (CPN) have been arch-rivals since the early 1990s, with each party defeating the other in subsequent elections. The most prominent political parties in Nepal include Nepali Congress (NC), Communist Party of Nepal (UML), Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Socialist), People’s Socialist Party, Loktantrik Samajwadi Party, Nepal and People’s Progressive Party. The current government consists of a coalition of four parties – the Nepali Congress, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist center), the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Socialist) and the Janata Samajbadi Party, which came into being after a prolonged government crisis on 13 July 2021 with the appointment of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba. In 2021, the factional struggle within the main political parties intensified, which the Supreme Court also had to deal with. The result was the division of the main political parties into smaller factions. Check computerminus to learn more about Nepal political system.

Foreign policy of the country

India is historically, geographically and culturally the most natural partner of Nepal. However, mutual relations have been moving on a sinusoid in recent years. So far in 2020 they were rather in its lower half, in 2021 there was a warming of mutual relations after the election of the new Prime Minister Deuba, who is much closer to the Indian Prime Minister than his predecessor. Despite the new leadership, the number one issue is border disputes. India is among the major providers of grant aid and has lent Rs 15.87 billion to Nepal for the fiscal year 2021/2022. India and Nepal are negotiating to conclude a revision of the Trade Agreement, Transit Agreement and amendments to the Railway Services Agreement. Current bilateral topics include border management, connectivity, cooperation in trade and transit, energy and water resources, and culture and education. Check relationshipsplus for Nepal defense and foreign policy.

Former Prime Minister Oli has long been known as a supporter of strengthening relations with the Chinese neighbor. Under his rule, Nepal and China upgraded bilateral relations to a “strategic partnership”. However, this concept has become somewhat stale. In the past two years, the two sides have never sat down and discussed a possible plan for a “strategic partnership. Under Deub’s current government, there are concerns about further developments. However, both countries are working on draft implementation plans for projects to be implemented under the BRI initiative. Current topics for bilateral cooperation include cooperation in the field of vaccination, trade, development cooperation and border management, the return of Nepalese students to China,

Relations with the US revolved around the USD 500 million Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Agreement, signed as early as 2017. Under the MCC, the USA is offering a USD 500 million grant, the largest grant Nepal has ever received, to be supplemented by US$130 million from the Government of Nepal. The agreement was ratified on February 27, 2022. The agreement will have a significant impact on Nepal’s geopolitical orientation towards the United States and marks a shift away from China.

Relations with the EU. The EU has its own diplomatic representation in Nepal. Priority points of cooperation are development programs, support of the education system, management of public finances, fight against corruption. For Nepal, the ban on flights of Nepalese airlines to the EU, which has been in place for years, is very frustrating.


Number of inhabitants and population density:

29.5 million people live in Nepal, the population density is 216. /km2. 20.6% of the population lives in cities. The average annual increase was 0.98%.

Demographic composition:

The population of Nepal consists of more than 60 different ethnicities and caste groups, which can be divided into people of Tibeto-Nepali origin (Mongoloid group) and people of Indo-Nepali origin (descendants of Indo-Aryan immigrants). Ethnic groups: Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan /Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%.

Official language:

The official language is Nepali. Other languages ​​are also spoken in the country – Maithali, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Tamang, Newar, Bajjika, Magar, Doteli, Urdu, Avadhi, Limbu, Gurung, Baitadeli.


Main religions: Hinduism 81.3%, Buddhism 9%, Islam 4.4%, Christians 1.4% etc. Some tribes adhere to local sects of Tibetan Buddhism – Lamaism and others still maintain the original tribal cults. Kirat shamanism is practiced by approx. 3.1% of the population.