Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The 1992 constitution established the country’s official name as “Mongolia”. Mongolia is a semi-presidential republic, the government is the supreme body of executive power, headed by a chairman appointed by the president. The members of the government are appointed directly by the prime minister. The position of president has been held by Uchnaagijn Chürelsüch, who ran for the Mongolian People’s Party, since the last election held on June 25, 2021. An amendment to the constitutional law from November 2019 regulates the length of the presidential mandate, starting with the 2021 elections. According to the amendment to the law, the president is elected for one term of office of six years without the possibility of re-election in consecutive elections. The President has limited powers and is responsible to the Parliament, which is called the State Grand Chural. The parliament is unicameral, has 76 seats and deputies are elected directly once every four years. Check equzhou to learn more about Mongolia political system.
In the last parliamentary elections in June 2020, the Mongolian People’s Party won an overwhelming majority of seats (62 out of 76) and formed a one-color government. The Mongolian Democratic Party is the second largest party in the country and currently holds 11 seats in parliament. One seat is occupied by a representative of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party and one legislator is without party affiliation. The next parliamentary elections will be held in June 2024.
In January 2022, two new ministries were established (Ministry of Economic Development and Ministry of Digital Development and Communications). The Ministry of Economic Development is temporarily headed by the Minister of Finance, B. Žavchlan, and the current Minister of Education and Science, L. Ench-amgalan, was temporarily appointed as the Minister of Digital Development and Communications. Further changes took place at the post of the Ministry of the Environment, when Njamžavyn URTNASANA was dismissed from its position on 17 January 2022. Bat-Ulzín Bat-Erdene was immediately appointed as the new minister.
Composition of the government*:
Prime Minister: Luvsannamsrajn OJUN-ERDENE
Deputy Prime Minister: Sainbujangijn AMARSAJCHAN
Head of government office: Cendijn NJAMDORŽ
Minister of the Environment and Tourism: Bat-Ulzín BAT-ERDENE
Minister of Defense: Gantulgyn SAJCHANBAJAR
Minister of Foreign Relations: Batmunchijn BATCECEG
Minister of Finance: Boldyn ŽAVCHLAN
Minister of Justice and the Interior: Chišgégijn NJAMBÁTAR
Minister of Labor and Social Security: Ayushijn ARIUNZAJA
Minister of Construction and Urbanization: Begzžavyn MUNCHBÁTAR
Minister of Education and Science: Luvsancerengijn ENCH-AMGALAN
Minister of Road Development and Transport: Luvsangijn CHALTAR
Minister of Culture: Činbatyn NOMIN
Minister of Mining and Heavy Industry: Gelengijn JONDON
Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry: Zagjavyn MENDSAJCHAN
Minister of Energy: Nansalyn TAVINBECH
Minister of Health: Seréžavyn ENCHBOLD
Minister of Economic Development: Boldyn ŽAVCHLAN
Minister of Digital Development and Communications: Luvsancerengijn ENCH-AMGALAN
*Valid as of 4/14/2022
This year, the government will focus mainly on the implementation of the plan approved by the parliament for the post-pandemic recovery of the country. The strategy to stimulate and revive the economy affected by the pandemic aims to ensure the political and macroeconomic stability of the country, effectively implement Mongolia’s long-term development policy “Vision 2050”, promote cooperation between the public and private sectors, create a favorable business environment, improve investment conditions for domestic and foreign entities and implement new fiscal reforms.
Foreign policy of the country
Mongolia’s foreign policy priorities are its two only neighbors, China and Russia. The dominant trade-economic influence of the otherwise unpopular China is balanced by the political influence of Russia. The country implements a balancing policy to maintain the country’s independence. Therefore, the so-called Third Neighbor Policy is applied, which means all other developed economies: the USA, Japan, Korea, India, etc., and sometimes also the Czechia. Check recipesinthebox for Mongolia defense and foreign policy.
China , purchasing more than 80% of Mongolian exports (similar to EU countries from the Czech Republic), remains the focus of Mongolia’s foreign and especially economic relations. Mongolia’s foreign policy will continue to rely on maintaining stable bilateral relations with China to secure trade outlets and investment flowing from China to revitalize its economy. For this reason as well, the Mongolian government is expected to continue to ignore domestic protests against China’s assimilation program against ethnic Mongols in Inner Mongolia and refrain from openly criticizing it so as not to damage its relations with China. With regard to the country’s “Recovery Plan” adopted by the parliament after the pandemic, the Mongolian government will seek further Chinese investments, mainly in sectors such as energy, transport, or tourism.
With Russia Mongolia maintains friendly relations that balance Chinese influence to some extent politically. Mongolia is very cautious in its foreign policy towards both of its neighbors. It has long taken a neutral position on international issues, thus maintaining its favor. An example is the Russian invasion of the sovereign territory of Ukraine. Mongolia did not officially condemn the Russian invasion and during the UN General Assembly vote on the resolution condemning the invasion of Russian troops into Ukraine, along with 35 other countries (including China), abstained from voting. Mongolia will strive to deepen economic cooperation with Russia and partially correct the large deficit in the mutual trade balance. Russia is only in 5th place in terms of Mongolian exports by country (after China, Switzerland, Singapore and South Korea) and, conversely, is the 2nd largest importer of goods to Mongolia after China. The construction of the Russian gas pipeline Soyuz Vostok, which is supposed to lead from Russia through Mongolian territory to China, is currently the most discussed topic in the Mongolian-Russian trade relationship. For Mongolia, the project would mean the possibility of direct participation in construction works and the preferential purchase of part of the transported gas to satisfy domestic demand. China’s position on this pipeline remains unclear for now. Chinese demand is currently being met by gas from Siberia, in addition, a new contract was signed in February 2022 to take Russian gas for the next 30 years from the Sakhalin pipeline, which is still under construction. Last but not least, the Mongols will continue joint military exercises with Russia as part of bilateral military cooperation.
As part of the so-called Third Neighbor Policy , Mongolia will make efforts to diversify its international relations by strengthening existing ties and business cooperation, especially with the USA, Japan and India. International financial and non-profit organizations will continue to implement development aid and cooperation projects in Mongolia.
The European Union established bilateral relations with Mongolia in 1989. Since 2017, it has had a resident ambassador in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia has been striving for visa-free relations with the member states of the Schengen area for a long time. However, Samo allows visa-free travel for short-term stays only to tourists from Germany and applies a visa policy to citizens of other Schengen states. Cooperation with the EU focuses on expanding trade exchanges and supporting Mongolian exports to the EU within the framework of the 2017 Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA). Using the GSP+ mechanisms, Mongolia can supply up to 6,200 products duty-free to the European Union (87% are clothing and textile products). In 2021, the trade exchange between the EU and Mongolia will reach EUR 605 million, making it the fourth largest trading partner.
The population of Mongolia is 3.40 million.
The average population density is people/km2, in Ulaanbaatar 317.3 people/km2, in the countryside around 0.9 people/km2.
The share of the economically active population in working age is 41.5%.
The share of the urban population is 67.5%.
Average annual population growth:
Source: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
According to ADB statistics, the average annual increase in population between 2015 and 2020 was 1.9%.
Demographic composition of the population (December 2020)
By gender: men (49.3%), women (50.7%)
By age: 0-14 years (30.94%), 15-59 years (63.41%), over 60 years (6.65%)
Ethnic composition of the population
Mongolian ethnicity is as follows: 87.7% Khalkh (Khalkh – English, Халх – Mongolian); 2.7% of Durvúds (Durvud – English, Дорвёд – Mong.); 1.9% Bajadi (Bayad – English, Баяд – Mong.); 1.7% Buryats (Buryat – English, Бурят – Mong.); further English: Dariganga, Darkhad, Khoton, Myangad, Uuld, Torguud, Tsaatan, Uriankhai, Uzemchin, Zakhchin.
Non-Mongolian ethnicity: Kazakhs (Kazakh – English, Казах – Mong.) – 5.9%
38.6% atheists or agnostics
Mongolian society is relatively tolerant of different religious beliefs. The 1992 Constitution guarantees freedom of religion as a fundamental human right.
According to estimates, more than half of the population professes Buddhism, most of whom do not even actively practice it, generally just sharing Buddhist philosophy and preserving some Buddhist rituals and traditions without deeper knowledge. Almost 40% of the population consider themselves atheists or agnostics. According to statistics, shamanism, also called Mongolian folk religion (Tangerism), is practiced by 2.3% of the population (approx. 76 thousand people). Mongolian Shamanism is an animistic and shamanic ethnic religion that has been practiced by Mongolians since ancient times. Its early form associated with the tribal organization of Mongolian society changed with the arrival of Tibetan Buddhism in the country in the 16th century. Since 1990, the number of people professing Christianity in Mongolia has grown significantly, from the original few hundred people to about 70,000.