Mexico State Government
Form of government
The Mexican Republic is made up of 31 states and one federal district, Mexico City. As a result of the revolution in 1917, 2,445 municipalities (districts) with equal status were anchored in the constitution.
Constitution and separation of powers
The 1917 Constitution, which remains in force to this day, defines Mexico as a democratic, representative and federal republic. The separation of powers into the executive, legislative and judicial branches is guaranteed. Since its adoption, the constitution has undergone several decisive changes, such as: B. the land ownership regulations (Article 27) in 1991, or the definition of Mexico as a pluricultural and multi-ethnic nation (Article 2) in 2001.
The presidential system provides that the president, head of the federal government, is also the highest representative of the state and the highest commander in command of the army. He is directly elected by the people for his six-year mandate. Re-election is not possible. Until 1996 he appointed the head of government of the federal district DF. The executive, with the president as the only person at the helm, exercised strong control over the legislature and judiciary, which de facto supported all presidential projects until the mid-1990’s. The dominance of the president was not weakened until 1997, when the PAN first received an absolute majority in the House of Representatives.
The legislature (el Congreso de la Unión), which is directly elected by the people, consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives or Parliament (Cámara de Diputados) and the Senate or country representative (Cámara de Senadores). The House of Representatives consists of 500 delegates and is elected every three years. The Senate is composed of four senators per federal state and federal district DF, a total of 128 senators. He is elected every six years in rhythm with the presidential election. Direct re-election in both chambers has so far been impossible.
At the federal level, the judiciary consists of the Supreme Federal Court of Justice (Suprema Corte de Jusiticia de la Nación, SCJN) and the Federal Electoral Court of the Judiciary (Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación). The 11 federal judges of the SCJN are proposed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Their term of office is limited to 15 years. It was not until the constitutional reform of 1995 that the SCJN was able to assume its role as guardian of the constitution. Since 2000, the Attorney General proposed by the President has to be approved by the Senate. The Federal Electoral Court decides on disputes in connection with elections at the local or national level.
Formal state structure
At the state level, the constitution provides that each state forms its own organs (executive, legislative and judicial). The governor is at the head of the executive (Gobierno del Estado), the country congress at the head of the legislature (Poder Legislativo Estatal) and the regional court at the head of the judiciary (Poder Judicial Estatal).
The 32 governors of the federal units are directly elected by the people. During the PRI rule, they were severely restricted in their freedom of action by the power of the president.
The 31 states and Mexico City have equal rights in the constitution. Mexico City has been a separate federal entity (“entidad federativa”) since February 2016, and is also the seat of the federal government.
The districts or Municipios, administrative sub-units of the federal states, are led by an “Ayuntamiento Municipal”, which is presided over by the Presidente Municipal (Mayor) as the executive body. The legislature is represented by regidores (district councils) and the judiciary by Síndicos. A Síndico represents and legally defends the interests of the district and is a communication and arbitration body between the people and the mayor.
The district assembly of the three powers is called the Cabildo.
Even though Mexico is officially a federal republic, the centralization of political power did not allow the states and the municipalities to exercise their constitutional autonomy until the end of the 20th century. It was not until the end of the hegemonic PRI government in 2000 that there was an opportunity to redefine the relationship between the government of the central state and the respective regions.
Regional state structure
This map shows the 31 Mexican states:
Law, order and security
The Mexican Constitution defines the country’s form of government as republican, democratic, representative and federal (Article 40). Although federalism is firmly anchored in the country’s self-image, the constant changes in the federal legal system (leyes federales) are increasingly enforcing the centralization of tasks. The leyes estatales established at the federal level regulate all tasks that are not reserved for the central government. This includes homeland security tasks that are carried out at federal, state, and local levels.
According to remzfamily, internal security is a big problem, not just in Mexico, but in all of Latin America. The Mexican military was primarily intended to serve national defense, but is increasingly being used for tasks of internal security and the fight against organized crime.
Demonstration against violence against women