Mexico Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Mexico Basic Information

Subchapters:

  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official country name: United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos)

President: Andrés Manuel López Obrador (in office since 1/12/2018)

Composition of the government:
The United Mexican States is a federal presidential republic with a constitution from 1917. All citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote. The head of state is the president, who is directly elected for a six-year term of office, without the possibility of re-election. The President is also the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Legislative power is exercised by a bicameral parliament consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The lower house of the parliament (Cámara de Diputados) has 500 deputies – 300 deputies are free by direct election, 200 seats in the Chamber of Deputies are distributed by a proportional key according to the electoral gain of the political parties. Deputies are elected for a three-year term, without the possibility of immediate re-election. The upper chamber of the parliament (Cámara de Senadores) consists of 128 senators, when 96 senators are elected by direct election and 32 seats are divided by a proportional key according to the electoral gain of individual political parties. Senators are elected for six-year terms and are eligible for re-election. The current government took office on 1 December 2018.

The current composition of the government as of 1 April 2022 is as follows:
Cabinet:

  • Minister of the Interior: Adán Augusto López Hernández (from 26/08/2021)
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs: Marcelo Ebrard
  • Minister of Finance: Rogelio Ramírez de la O (from 3/8/2021)
  • Minister of National Defense: General Luis Crescencio Sandoval González
  • Minister of the Navy: Admiral Jóse Rafael Ojeda Durán
  • Minister of Public Security: Rosa Icela Rodríguez (from November 3, 2020)
  • Attorney General: Alejandro Gertz Manero
  • Minister of Economy: Tatiana Clouthier Carrillo (from 7/12/2020)
  • Minister of Social Development: Javier May Rodríguez (from 2/9/2020)
  • Minister of Communications and Transport: Jorge Arganis Díaz Leal (from 23/07/2020)
  • Minister of Labor and Social Affairs: Luisa María Alcalde Luján
  • Minister of Environment and Natural Resources: María Luisa Albores Gonzáles (from 2/9/2020)
  • Minister of Energy: Rocío Nahle Garcia
  • Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development: Víctor Villalobos Arámbula
  • Minister of Education: Delfina Gómez Álvarez (from 21/12/2020)
  • Minister of Health: Jorge Carlos Alcocer Varela
  • Minister of Tourism: Miguel Torruco Marqués
  • Minister for the Functioning of Public Power: Irma Eréndira Sandoval
  • Minister for Agricultural, Territorial and Municipal Development: Román Meyer Falcón
  • Minister of Culture: Alejandra Frausto Guerrero

Political tendencies:
Mexico has been a politically stable democratic country for a long time. Tired of corruption scandals, deep social inequality and high crime rates, the society chose change in 2018 in the form of the left-wing National Renewal Movement (MORENA) of current President López Obrador. It promotes the support of the economically weakest part of the population, the fight against corruption and elitism, and the improvement of the security situation. Changes in a number of priority policies and the unpredictability of the new government have also brought a number of uncertainties. The government introduced large-scale austerity measures and halted a number of ongoing infrastructure projects, which resulted in a slowdown in economic growth and investor hesitancy. The government did not change this approach even during the COVID-19 pandemic, when state support for the economy did not exceed 1.2% of GDP, which is considered insufficient, even in regional comparison. Check diseaseslearning to learn more about Mexico political system.

Foreign policy of the country

Relations with other countries
The US plays a very key role for Mexico. The mutual economic interdependence (they are each other’s main trading partners) enshrined in the Free Trade Agreement between Mexico, the USA and Canada (USMCA, formerly NAFTA) is completely decisive for pro-export Mexico. The majority of Mexican exports (80%) go to the USA, which is also the main source of foreign investment going to Mexico. The inexorable interconnectedness of production chains was exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, when the otherwise closed border had to remain open precisely for economic activities. This closeness is also reflected in the political ties, which, despite occasional tensions, remain pragmatic on both sides. Other topics of intense mutual contact are related to the management of the more than 3,000 km long common border (migration, narcotics and weapons trade), but also the fate of minorities living on both sides of the border (11% of the US population is of Mexican origin). Due to its strategic location, where it is the gateway to the North American continent as well as to Latin America, Mexico has historically strived for a balanced foreign policy and friendly relations across regions. This was also reflected, for example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, when vaccines from the USA and Europe, as well as Russia, China and India, are heading to Mexico. This is also why Mexico often plays the role of facilitator of international political processes. It is a member of most international organizations, including the G20, WTO, OECD, CELAC and the Pacific Alliance, and is based on their standards. In the economic field, it is trying to diversify and reduce its ties to the US through the existence of numerous free trade agreements. Check themotorcyclers for Mexico defense and foreign policy.

Relations with the EU
Political and economic relations between the European Union and Mexico are governed by the Global Agreement from 1997 (in force since 2000), which, in addition to topics of common interest such as human rights, sustainable economic development, the environment, science and technology, also A free trade agreement (FTA) that regulates the movement of goods and services. Thanks to the Free Trade Agreement, mutual trade in goods between the two partners increased by 148%, and today over 40% of foreign investment heading to Mexico comes from European Union countries. The process of modernizing the Global Agreement has been completed and is currently awaiting final signature. The new Global Agreement further deepens political and economic ties. The new Agreement should enter into force in 2022. Since 2008, Mexico has also been a strategic partner of the EU.

Population

Population and population density:
According to the latest official census in 2020, Mexico has a population of 126,014,024, of which 51.2% (64,540,634) are female and 48.8% (61,473,390) are male. The population density is 64 inhabitants/km2 (2020), approx. 57.3 million inhabitants are economically active and 78% of the population lives in cities (2020). The average annual increase is 16.8% (2020).

Demographic composition:
The largest group is Indian-Hispanic mixed race, followed by the population of European descent and ethnic Indians.

Official Language:
The official language of Mexico is Spanish, which differs from Spanish Spanish in a number of expressions. Some words in Mexican Spanish are borrowed from native languages. Along with Spanish, there are up to 364 indigenous languages ​​in Mexico. Almost 6 million Mexicans speak an Amerindian language. The most important Native American languages ​​in Mexico include Aztec Nahuatl, Maya, Huichol, Totonaca, Mixteco, Zapoteco, Otomí and Tzotzil.

Religion:
Mexico is a Catholic country and about 78% of the population (90,224,559) profess its faith. 14% (16,118,762) profess a faith other than Catholic. According to the latest census in 2020, approximately 8% of the population (9,156,555) are of no religion.