Malta Brief History

By | December 26, 2021

From the Phoenicians to the British. Colonized by the Phoenicians, then by the Carthaginians, Malta was influenced by the Greeks of Sicily. The Romans conquered it in 218 BC, uniting it with the province of Sicily. In the 4th century. AD it was attributed to the Eastern Empire; prey of the vandals and then of the Goths, it was finally reconquered in Byzantium by Belisarius in 533. Occupied by the Arabs (9th century), it was soon subjected to the Muslim government of Sicily; the Muslim dominion lasted until 1091, when Roger the Norman liberated Sicily and occupied Malta; the Muslims, however, were expelled only in the 13th century, with Frederick II. Passed to the Angevins (1266) and to the Aragonese (1283), with the latter Malta had the same regulations as those of Sicily. In 1530 it was granted by Charles V to the Order of St. John, expelled from Rhodes in 1522, which was thus able to resume from Malta his struggles against Turks and Barbaries. From May to Sept. 1565 the island underwent the “Great siege” placed by the Turks of Suleiman II under the command of Mustafà pascià: the resistance of the knights and the Maltese was fueled by Spanish, Genoese, Neapolitan, Sicilian and Tuscan relief expeditions; finally Mustafà pasha was forced to surrender. The centralizing policy of the Order did not fail to arouse outbursts of rebellion, especially since, at the end of the 18th century, the people’s council was no longer convened. However, it was the French conquest (1798), during Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt, that put an end to the dominion of the Knights, who were driven out and never set foot in Malta. In 1800 H. Nelson besieged the island and, in 1801, the French capitulated. Malta passed to England for the Treaty of Paris of 1814, becoming a colony of the British Crown, governed by a governor. Self-government, granted in 1921, was suspended twice, until the governorship was returned in 1936. During the Second World War Malta and especially the port of Valletta were the defense center of the British positions in the Mediterranean. After the war, the British government granted Malta limited autonomy, based on the Constitution which entered into force on 5 Sept. 1947, which was however repealed in 1959, following the resignation of the Dom Mintoff government (April 1958) and the riots that followed. In 1962 Prime Minister G. Borg Olivier (who came to power following the elections in February 1962 won by the Nationalist Party) requested that Malta become independent, remaining within the Commonwealth. Independence was granted two years later. following the resignation of the Dom Mintoff government (April 1958) and the riots that followed. In 1962 Prime Minister G. Borg Olivier (who came to power following the elections in February 1962 won by the Nationalist Party) requested that Malta become independent, remaining within the Commonwealth. Independence was granted two years later. following the resignation of the Dom Mintoff government (April 1958) and the riots that followed. In 1962 Prime Minister G. Borg Olivier (who came to power following the elections in February 1962 won by the Nationalist Party) requested that Malta become independent, remaining within the Commonwealth. Independence was granted two years later. For Malta society, please check homosociety.com.

The independent state. The 1966 general elections saw the victory of the Nationalist Party and the confirmation of G. Borg Olivier’s office as prime minister. In 1971, after the Labor victory, Dom Mintoff came to power, who among his first acts denounced the defense agreement drawn up with the United Kingdom in 1964 and removed NATO’s Southern naval command from Malta After having concluded a commercial agreement with the USSR for the use of the shipyards of Malta, Mintoff asked Great Britain for the immediate payment of over 4 million pounds or the withdrawal of its contingents. After a serious tension in 1972 an agreement was reached for the payment, for 7 years, of 14 million pounds per year (divided between Great Britain and the other NATO countries) and the reduction to 3500 men of the British contingent stationed in Malta, in anticipation of its definitive withdrawal for 1979. This allowed the start of a new agricultural-industrial development plan and a foreign policy aimed at making the island a non-aligned country. Meanwhile, an agreement signed in 1970 with the European Community provided for free access to the common market and tariff concessions. In 1974 Malta became a Republic and A. Mamo was elected president, succeeded in 1976 by A. Buttigieg and in 1982 by A. Barbara. The Labor government continued the policy of non-alignment and neutrality and established political agreements in this direction with Italy and the USSR; in 1984 a five-year collaboration treaty was signed with Libya. Mintoff retired in 1984, replaced by Malta Bonnici, who renegotiated the treaties with Italy and the European Community. In 1987, after 16 years of Labor prevalence, the nationalists won the elections, and so again in 1992. Prime Minister E. Fenech-Adami did not change the line of foreign policy, except for the search for more stable relations with Western countries and in particular. with the European Community, but in the political elections of 1996 the pro-European choice penalized the Nationalist Party to the advantage of A. Sant’s Labor, supporter of the recovery of the country’s full neutrality in the international field and opposed to entry into the European Union. In the ag. 1998, however, the fragile government majority went into crisis. The new elections marked the victory of the Nationalist Party and the return of Fenech-Adami. In 2002 the European Union summit in Copenhagen gave the go-ahead for Malta’s entry for 2004 and in 2003 the membership was approved by a supporter of the recovery of the country’s full neutrality in the international arena and opposed to entry into the European Union. In the ag. 1998, however, the fragile government majority went into crisis. The new elections marked the victory of the Nationalist Party and the return of Fenech-Adami. In 2002 the European Union summit in Copenhagen gave the go-ahead for Malta’s entry for 2004 and in 2003 the membership was approved by a supporter of the recovery of the country’s full neutrality in the international arena and opposed to entry into the European Union. In the ag. 1998, however, the fragile government majority went into crisis. The new elections marked the victory of the Nationalist Party and the return of Fenech-Adami. In 2002 the European Union summit in Copenhagen gave the go-ahead for Malta’s entry for 2004 and in 2003 the membership was approved by a referendum. In April the new political elections were won by the Nationalist Party and L. Gonzi took over from Fenech-Adami, who became president. In 2008 Malta also entered the euro monetary area. In 2009, Labor G. Abela was appointed president.

Malta Brief History