Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg / Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg / Grand-Duché de Luxembourg / Großherzogtum Luxemburg
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy and a traditional liberal democracy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Grand Duke, who is constitutionally vested with executive power, although in practice he only has a ceremonial function. Legislative power is given to the Chamber of Deputies (60 members), elected every 5 years by a proportional system. Universal direct suffrage applies to citizens over the age of 18. Already in its second term of government, the coalition consists of the center-right and liberal Democratic Party (DP) led by Prime Minister Xavier Bettel, the Socialist Workers’ Party (LSAP) and the Greens (Greng). In general, it is a very stable political environment. The next elections are scheduled for October 2023. The main opposition party is the Christian Social People’s Party (CSV), which dominated the country’s political scene in previous decades. Check computerminus to learn more about Luxembourg political system.
Prime Minister; Minister of Communications and Religious Affairs: Xavier Bettel (DP)
Deputy Prime Minister, Health and Consumer Protection: Paulette Lenert (LSAP)
Deputy Prime Minister; Minister of Defence, Mobility and Public Works: M: François Bausch (Greens)
Principal members of the government:
Minister of Foreign Affairs, European Affairs and Immigration: Jean Asselborn (LSAP)
Minister of Finance: Yuriko Backes (DP)
Minister of Economy, Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid: Franz Fayot (LSAP)
Minister of Energy and Planning: Claude Turmes (Greens)
Minister of Education, Education, for Children and Youth, Research: Claude Meisch (DP)
Minister for Family and Integration: Corinne Cahen (DP)
Minister for the Interior and Gender Equality: Taina Bofferding (LSAP)
Minister for Justice and Culture: Sam Tanson (Greens)
Minister of Agriculture and Social Security: Claude Haagen (LSAP)
Minister for the Environment, Climate and Sustainable Development: Joëlle Welfring (Greens)
Minister for Pensions: Henri Kox (Greens)
Civil service and relations with parliament: Marc Hansen (DP)
Foreign policy of the country
Luxembourg is an active member of most international organizations (United Nations / UN 1945, North Atlantic Alliance / NATO 1949), Council of Europe / RE 1949, European Coal and Steel Community / CECA 1952), European Economic Community / EEC /1957//European Union / EU 1993, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development / OECD 1960, Schengen Agreement and Schengen Implementing Convention / “Schengen” 1985, EU territory using the common European currency euro / Eurozone 1999, European High Performance Computing Joint Undertaking / euro-HPC 2017, GAIA 2021 European cloud). For the first time, Luxembourg is a member of the UN Human Rights Council for the period 2022-2024.
In the EU, Luxembourg is one of the founding, active members (at the birth of the EEC, later the EU, a Luxembourger, later French foreign minister Robert Schuman, stood); it is also behind a number of EU program innovations (euro/1999, Schengen/1999, supercomputer network euro-HPC/2017). The countries of Benelux and FR/DE (the so-called Pentaterál) are among the closest partners. During the pandemic, it also became closer to the Baltic countries due to the temporary closure of internal borders. Check relationshipsplus for Luxembourg defense and foreign policy.
Foreign trade and investment play a vital role in the case of a small (2,586 km2, 614,400 inhabitants), dynamic, open, integrated economy. The majority of production (85%) is intended for export, of which 87% to other EU member states (one of the reasons why LU initiated the creation of the euro). Asian (8.2%), American (5.84%), African (1.8%) and Oceanic countries (0.2%) are gradually becoming important trading partners.
Luxembourg maintains an open approach to migration and thus differs in opinion from some other EU member states (ex. V4, AT). During the pandemic, there was a very critical attitude towards the closing of internal borders, which it perceives as an undesirable phenomenon for the free movement of goods, people, services and capital within the EU internal market. Luxembourg has a negative view of the nuclear policy of some EU member states (FR, CZ, BE) and strongly supports the transition to ecological and sustainable energy sources, including investments in wind power plants in Denmark and Belgium.
- Beautypically: Overview of Luxemburg, including popular places to visit, UNESCO World Heritage List, climate, geography and travel advice.
Population: 645,397 (as of 1/1/2022; in terms of population, the second smallest EU member state after Malta). Density: 23 inhabitants/km2.
Population increase of 10,000 per year (mostly migration). The average age of the population is 40 years. Age composition: children under 14 years 16.1%; active population 69.5%; seniors over 65 14.3% (average life expectancy 72 years for men, 8years for women).
National composition: 52.1% Luxembourgers; 47.9% foreigners (of which 39% EU).
Language composition: French is spoken by 96%, Luxembourgish by 78%, German by 75% of residents. The language of the largest foreign community, Portuguese, is spoken by 11% of the population.
Religious composition: the Catholic faith prevails (73.7%), but there are also smaller Protestant and Jewish communities (2.3%). With the wave of migration, the number of Muslim residents increased (so far 4%).
Largest cities by population: Luxembourg 130,000 people; Esch-sur-Alzette 35,000 people; Differdange 26,200 people; Dudelange 20,900 people; Pétange 18,700 people