Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (in Kazakh or Kazakh Қазақстан; in Russian Казахстан) is a Eurasian country, its territory is divided between Central Asia and a small portion in Europe. It was part of the Soviet Union until 1991. Kazakhstan has a bicameral parliament, made up of a Lower House (the Mazhilis) and an Upper House (the Senate). In district elections, representatives are elected to 67 seats in the Mazhilis. Another 10 members are elected under a different system. Although the Mazhilis have powers for legislative initiative, most of the legislation considered by parliament is proposed by the executive branch. It has an area of 2.7 million km² and is the ninth largest country in the world. Its size is practically equivalent to that of Argentina or Western Europe.
Government and politics
The president is the Head of State, and at the same time Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. It has veto power over legislation passed by Parliament. President Nursultan Nazarbayev, who has held office since Kazakhstan declared independence, was re-elected for a new eight-year term in 1999. The Prime Minister, who governs according to the President’s designs, heads the Cabinet of Ministers and is the visible face of the country’s government. There are also three deputy prime ministers and 18 ministers in the cabinet.
As a country starting with letter K listed on COUNTRYAAH, Kazakhstan has a bicameral parliament, made up of a Lower House (the Mazhilis) and an Upper House (the Senate). In district elections, representatives are elected to 67 seats in the Mazhilis. Another 10 members are elected under a different system. Although the Mazhilis have powers for legislative initiative, most of the legislation considered by parliament is proposed by the executive branch.
The Senate has 39 members. Two of them are elected in each elective assembly (Maslikhats) in the 16 main administrative divisions of the country. The remaining senators senators are selected directly by the President of the Republic.
In the legislative elections of 2007, the ruling party won 88.05% of the vote.
Kazakhstan’s Chairmanship of the OSCE In January 2010, Kazakhstan assumed the Chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the largest regional security organization, connecting 56 countries in Europe, North America and Asia.
Kazakhstan became the first post-Soviet state, mostly Asian and Muslim state to be given the honor of leading the organization. Undoubtedly, the honor of the Presidency in authorized international organizations symbolizes the successful social, economic and political achievements of Kazakhstan during the 18 years of its independence.
Kazakhstan is made up of 14 provinces (oblystar; singular: oblys) and three cities (qala; singular: qalasy):
- Akmola Province (Kokshetau)
- Aktobe Province (Aktobe)
- Almaty Province (Taldykorgan)
- Atyrau Province (Atyrau)
- East Kazakhstan Province (Öskemen)
- Karaganda Province (Karaganda)
- Kostanay Province (Kostanay)
- Kyzylorda Province (Kyzylorda)
- Mangystau Province (Aktau)
- North Kazakhstan Province (Petropavlovsk)
- Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar)
- South Kazakhstan Province (Shymkent)
- West Kazakhstan Province (Oral)
- Zhambyl Province (Taraz)
It has an area of 2.7 million km² and is the ninth largest country in the world. Its size is practically equivalent to that of Argentina or Western Europe.
Located between western Asia and eastern Europe, its great extension gives it a great topographic variety. The country extends in a huge steppe located between the Caspian Sea and the Altai Mountains. To the south, it borders the Kyzylkum desert, located between the Aral Sea and the so-called Hunger Steppe (Betpak Dala), while to the north of the country are the plateaus of Lake Balkhash and to the east the foothills of the Altai Mountains and Tien Shan its highest point is the Khan-Tengri of 6995 meters of altitude.
Most of the residents of present-day Kazakhstan (1999 data) are ethnic Kazakh (63.6%) or Russian (23.3%), with small groups of Ukrainians (2.0%), Uzbeks (2.9%)), Germans (1.1%), Uighurs (1.4%) and other minorities. The 1990s were marked by the emigration of many Europeans who left Kazakhstan to return to their countries of origin. This phenomenon, together with the increase in the birth rate, made Kazakhs become the majority in the country.
Kazakhstan is not only considered one of the top Asian mining regions, but it is also one of the largest grain exporters. With regard to the mining sector, coal is mined in Karaganda and Pavlodar; oil and natural gas in the Emba basin, located next to the Caspian Sea. Likewise, the extraction of iron, manganese and copper is considerable in the central-eastern region and gold in a large strip next to the Irtysh basin. Mining exploitation has led to the development of a powerful industrial fabric of iron and steel and metallurgy, as well as mechanical, chemical, cotton textile and food factories.
The country also has huge deposits of chromium, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, lead, bauxite, and uranium.
Currently the country is going through a period of economic boom. In 2005 its economy grew by around 10% and in the last five years, by 100%, thus becoming one of the most dynamic economies on the Asian continent and a great power in the Central Asian region. The country’s wealth comes mainly from abundant natural resources, especially oil, although an increasingly important percentage of its wealth comes from tourism. Some of the tourist attractions of the capital of Kazakhstan, Almaty, are its great mountains, the Panfilov Park, dominated by one of the tallest wooden buildings in the world, built in the 20th century, with the interesting peculiarity of having been raised without using a single nail, or even of great natural beauty the beautiful lake of Kolsay
The most important challenge facing the economy is to reduce dependence on natural resources.
In 2007, the annual growth rate has decreased by two points, standing at 6%, due to the international mortgage crisis, the first effects of which are being felt in the country, although it seems that the construction of buildings is far behind. to stop.
At the end of 2008 and the beginning of 2009, the Kazakh economy has continued to grow below its means due to the decrease in the price of oil, which has diminished the income of the state and national banks.
As a result, Islam coexisted with traditional elements of Shamanism. Kazakh traditional beliefs hold that separate spirits inhabited and gave life to earth, sky, water, and fire, as well as domestic animals. To this day, guests settled in rural areas, used to receive a freshly slaughtered lamb. Guests are sometimes invited to bless the lamb and ask its spirit for permission to begin the sacrifice. Besides lamb, many other foods have symbolic value in Kazakh culture.
The treatment of animals was a crucial issue in the traditional way of life of the Kazakhs, most of their nomadic practices and their clothes somehow reveal their way of life. Traditional spells and blessings were used to invoke disease and fertility among animals, and good manners in Kazakh culture require one person to inquire about the health of the other’s home at the same time as greeting, only after greeting. that you can talk about the human aspects of life.
Today the Kazakh culture, after the independence of the former Soviet Union, has re-emerged with enormous force since Islam has once again become the majority religion among the population, something that is perhaps explained by the high birth rate among the ethnic Kazakh population. Despite everything, the culture of Kazakhstan has been radically westernized due to the economic boom that the country is experiencing thanks to black gold.
After the separation from the Soviet Union, it brought with it the emergence of ethnic identification, mainly through religion. There was an increase in religious activity. Hundreds of Churches, Synagogues, Mosques and other religious buildings were built in a very short time, with an increase in religious associations, going from 670 in 1990 to 4170 in 2010.
The religions are Sunni Islam (47%), Russian Orthodox Christianity (44%), Protestantism, such as Lutherans, Evangelicals and Baptists, small Catholic, Jewish and some Buddhist communities.
Kazakhstan is a bilingual country. Kazakh has the rank of a state language while Russian is considered an official language. Russian is commonly used in business and is spoken by up to 83% of the population, while 64.4% of the population speaks Kazakh. Education is compulsory up to the secondary level and the literacy level is 99.9%.