Jordan Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Jordan Basic Information

Subchapters:

  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Al-Mamlaka al-urduniya al-hashimiya) is a constitutional monarchy that succeeded the Emirate of Transjordan, established in 1921 under the leadership of the Hashemite family as a British mandated territory. Jordan gained its independence under a new name in 1946, when it became a kingdom still ruled by the Hashemites. Since 1999, Abdullah II has been the king of Jordan. As head of state, the king dissolves parliament and calls elections, and is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Jordanian parliament is bicameral, the upper chamber is the Senate, whose members are appointed and dismissed by the king, the seats of members of the House of Representatives are filled on the basis of elections. The prime minister is appointed by the king on the recommendation of the House of Representatives, and other members of the government are appointed on the basis of the recommendation of the prime minister. Traditional tribes and clans have a significant influence on events in Jordan. A significant majority of the deputies in the House of Representatives resulting from the elections in November 2020 are non-partisan, although they ran for individual political parties, none of which has any hope of gaining a dominant position. This is also why practically every government has a relatively shaky position, there are very frequent changes of ministers and prime ministers themselves. Jordan is also facing the pressure of Islamist radicalization, while the influential Muslim Brotherhood movement has been banned since 2020. Check equzhou to learn more about Jordan political system.

Foreign policy of the country

Jordan profiles itself as a pro-Western country, especially within the region. Its long-term strategic and highly developed relationship with the United States of America, both in terms of security, trade and development. However, the largest funder is the European Union, which nevertheless does not enjoy adequate awareness in the country, Jordan increasingly emphasizes direct relations with individual states, especially Germany and France, which are very active here, especially in development aid under their own flag. Even because of its colonial past, Jordan maintains close ties with Great Britain, among other things, they concluded a free trade agreement immediately after its withdrawal from the EU. Relations with the Gulf countries, which are also an important provider of financial aid, are key, especially considering the number of refugees from neighboring countries that Jordan has gradually accepted. and also the main source of foreign investment. The geopolitical situation of independent Jordan is continuously influenced mainly by the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Jordan has signed a peace agreement with Israel since 1994, the King of Jordan is the administrator of the Muslim and Christian holy places in Jerusalem. However, after the signing of the so-called Abraham Accords between Israel and other Arab countries, Jordan’s regional position is gradually changing. One of the responses is the strengthening of relations with Egypt and Iraq, both politically and economically. Jordan has a relatively active relationship with Russia, in addition to trade, it is connected by the issue of protecting the northern Jordanian border with Syria. Check recipesinthebox for Jordan defense and foreign policy.

Population

Jordan currently has approximately 11 million inhabitants, of which almost a third (foreign workers and refugees) do not have Jordanian citizenship. The number of inhabitants has increased fivefold over the last fifty years, and in 2005 it was halved compared to the current state. Over 97% of all residents are Arabs, more than two-thirds of them of Palestinian origin. In Jordan, there are an average of 115 inhabitants per square kilometer, however, due to the fact that over 90% of the people live in cities, more than half of which are directly in the area of ​​the capital Amman, and most of the territory is desert, the population is distributed very unevenly, especially in the northwestern part Earth. The state religion is Islam of the Sunni direction (94%), Christians mainly of the Orthodox faith live in the country (4%), another 2% of the population are Shiites or Druze. The average age in Jordan is less than 24 years. Due to the very young population and the low employment rate of women (approximately one in seven over the age of 15 works), there are approximately million economically active inhabitants. The literacy rate of Jordanian citizens is close to 100%.

At the same time, the rapid increase in population creates enormous pressure on Jordanian infrastructure, from (especially basic) education and healthcare to water and electricity supply, and is caused not only by the persistently high birth rate, but also to a large extent by repeated influxes of refugees from neighboring states throughout Jordan’s history. The UN still formally registers over million Palestinians as refugees in Jordan and manages ten refugee camps for them, in which 370 thousand live. During the war in Iraq, over a million Iraqis arrived in Jordan, now the UN has registered less than 70,000 Iraqi refugees in the country, some have already left the country, and others have established themselves in Jordanian society primarily economically, whereby some have even obtained Jordanian citizenship. According to official government data, there are million Syrians in Jordan. At the same time, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees registers over 673,000 Syrian refugees in Jordan (in more than half of the cases they are minors), a fifth of whom live in three refugee camps. Others mostly integrated into the poorer part of the Jordanian population. A non-negligible part of the population consists of manual workers mainly from Egypt (more than 1 million) and from Southeast Asia (mainly the Philippines and Sri Lanka).