Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The head of the republic is the president, who is elected indirectly at the session of both parliamentary chambers for a period of seven years. Executive power rests with the government headed by the prime minister. The parliament is elected for five years. It consists of the Chamber of Deputies with 630 members and the Senate with 315 elected senators and 5 lifetime senators appointed by the president. Sergio Mattarella has been the president of Italy since February 2015. The Prime Minister is Mario Draghi from February 2021. Italy was created in 1861 by the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. The rise of nationalists led in 1922 to the rise of the fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini and participation in the Second World War on the side of the Axis. In 1946, Italy became a democracy. During the 1950s and 1960s, it experienced a strong period of economic and cultural growth. Italy is a founding member of NATO, the EU and the G7 group, or G20. Check computerminus to learn more about Italy political system.
During the years 2017 – 2021, 4 governments (Gentiloni, Conte I, Conte II, Draghi) alternated. The situation stabilized with the appointment of the official (technical-political) executive of non-partisan and former ECB President Mario Draghi. The government is still in power and consists further of the center/left (Democratic Party/PD and the 5 Star Movement/H5H, Italia Viva/IV, Free and Equal/LeU) and the right-wing bloc (Up Italy/FI and League), of which the Brothers of Italy/FdI party split into opposition. At the beginning of February 2022, President Mattarella was re-elected. Starting with the entry of the 5 Star Movement/H5H into the parliament in 2013 and after its victory in the elections in the spring of 2018, the tripolar dynamics of the internal political IT system were confirmed, when the traditional political scheme of the left vs. right. The H5H movement subsequently underwent a gradual transformation and anchored itself on the center-left political spectrum. Parliamentary elections will be held on time in the spring of 2023. As a result of the constitutional reform, the number of legislators will be reduced from 945 to 600 in the next electoral period. In the meantime, it is necessary to redefine the constituencies of the valid electoral system and update the internal parliamentary regulations. It has not yet been possible to find agreement on the form of the new electoral law.
The composition of the government
- Mario Draghi – Prime Minister
- Roberto Garofoli – State Secretary of the Government Office
- Luciana Lamorgese – Minister of the Interior
- Luigi Di Maio – Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
- Giancarlo Giorgetti – Minister of Industry
- Marta Cartabia – Minister of Justice Daniele Franco – Minister of Economy and Finance
- Lorenzo Guerini – Minister of Defense Enrico Giovannini – Minister of Infrastructure and Sustainable Mobility
- Stefano Patuanelli – Minister of Agriculture, Food and Forestry Policies Roberto Cingolani – Minister of the Environment, Territorial and Marine Protection
- Patrizio Bianchi – Minister of Education
- Maria Cristina Messa – Minister of Higher Education and Research
- Dario Franceschini – Minister of Culture Roberto Speranza – Minister of Health
- Andrea Orlando – Minister of Labor and Social Policies
- Massimo Garavaglia – Minister of Tourism
- ministers without portfolio:
- Mariastella Gelmini – Minister for Regional Relations and Autonomy
- Renato Brunetta – Minister for Public Administration Federico D’Incà – Minister for Relations with Parliament and Direct Democracy
- Maria Rosaria Carfagna – Minister for the South and Territorial Cohesion Elena Bonetti – Minister for Equal Opportunities for the Family
- Vittorio Colao – Ministers for Technological Innovation and Digital Transition
- Fabiana Dadone – Minister for Youth Policy
- Erika Stefani – Minister for the Disabled
Foreign policy of the country
Italy is one of the most prominent countries in Western Europe, it is a founding member of the EU and NATO, it is a member of the international informal associations uniting the world’s most advanced economies (G7, G20) and belongs to a large number of international organizations (UN, OECD, OSCE, WTO, Council of Europe, SEI etc.). Three important international organizations belonging to the United Nations – namely FAO, WFP and IFAD – have their headquarters in Rome. Italy’s influence in foreign policy issues is ensured, among other things, by its membership in the alliance Quinte (US, UK, FR, DE, IT) or the Contact Group (US, UK, FR, DE, IT and RU).
The long-term priority of Italian foreign policy is the Mediterranean region, or the so-called “extended Mediterranean”, on whose stability and prosperity it largely depends. Italy is therefore active towards Libya, supporting its democratic development, but also its economic revival, in which it intends to participate. Another foreign-political priority for Italy is the Sahel region, which is essential for the security of the Mediterranean region, and the Horn of Africa region, especially Ethiopia and Eritrea. A key foreign-political issue in the European context for Italy has long been the region of the Western Balkans (including Albania) and the process of EU enlargement to include the countries of the region. The cabinet led by Mario Draghi (in power since February 2021) defined Italy’s EU and NATO membership as the basis of Italian foreign policy. Check relationshipsplus for Italy defense and foreign policy.
Russian aggression against Ukraine, launched in February 2022, understandably also significantly defined Italian foreign and security policy. Italy unequivocally opposes the Russian invasion of the UA, joins all steps in support of the UA and directed against the RU. Since the beginning of March 2022, Italy has been sending Kiev military equipment, including heavy weapons, and is active in humanitarian aid and accepting refugees from Ukraine. Italian government officials clearly speak in favor of Ukraine, Italy supports sanctions against Russia.
Italy is active in foreign military missions – under the banner of the UN, NATO and the EU etc. It is present in the Middle East, in Afghanistan and Iraq, the Sahel region and the Western Balkans, and elsewhere. Right in Rome, the headquarters of the EU military mission EUNAVFOR Med Irini, focused on monitoring compliance with the arms embargo against Libya, as well as the MFO (Multinational Force and Observers) mission overseeing the implementation of the peace agreement between IL and EG. In connection with the Russian aggression in Ukraine, Italy strengthened its presence on the so-called eastern wing of NATO (e.g. LV, RO, BG, HU).
Czech interests in Italy are represented by the Embassy of the Czech Republic in Rome, the Consulate General in Milan and seven Honorary Consulates of the Czech Republic in the country. Italy has its embassy in Prague and Honorary Consulate in Brno.
The number of inhabitants as of January 1, 2022 was 59,249 million people, and in 2021 it decreased by approximately 250,000. According to the number of inhabitants, Italy is the third most populous country in the EU and the 23rd country in the world (after Germany and France). The population density is 197 per 1 km2 (as of 01/01/2021), the most populous region of Italy is the Lombardy region (16.5%), which has almost twice the population of Lazio (9.7%), which follows it in the ranking. In last place is the Aosta Valley, where 0.2% of the population lives. The share of the economically active population (15 to 64 years) is 35,075 million, i.e. 59.2% of the population. Italy ranks among the countries with the highest average life expectancy (men 80.1 years and women 8years) in the world. Population growth stagnated in the period 1981 – 2001. In the first decade of the 21st century, growth occurred mainly due to immigration, followed by a downward trend. Demographically, Italy has one of the lowest birth rates in the world; in 2021, the average number of births per woman was 1.25. The share of men in Italy was 48.7%, the share of women 51.3%. Foreigners make up 8.8%. National composition: 91.1% of Italian citizens claim Italian nationality; other linguistic and ethnic groups: German (Alto Adige), Slovenian (Friuli – Venezia Giulia), French (Valle d’Aosta), Roma, Sinti, African, Asian. Religious composition: 97% of the population declares the Catholic faith, 1.5% belongs to the Waldensian Evangelical Church, the rest are mainly Muslims and members of other religions (largely due to the high number of foreigners – migrants arriving in Italy in recent years).