The status of Israel was proclaimed on May 14, 1948 at the time of the withdrawal of the English troops from Palestine. The territory of the state was provisionally defined in the armistice conventions stipulated between Israel and the countries of the Arab League: with the Egyptian govemment, in Rhodes on February 24, 1949; with Lebanon, at Ras en-Naqura on 23 March 1949; with the Kingdom of Jordan, in Rhodes on 3 April 1949; with Syria, at an altitude of 232 near Mahanaymm, on 20 July 1949. It is included in a line that goes from the Gulf of ‛Aqaba to the Mediterranean, near Rafah, leaving Egypt with Gaza and a narrow coastal area; the northern border was set at Ras en-Naqura; Galilee and the Negev were assigned to Israel from the Dead Sea to Eilat, Jerusalem being divided between Israel (new city) and Jordan (ancient city, with the Holy Places). The borders thus established are still the current ones and were guaranteed in 1950 by a joint Anglo-Franco-American declaration (which the RAU however refused, in February 1960, to recognize). On 11 May 1949 the UN General Assembly accepted Israel as a member, after it had already been recognized by 52 countries, and the USA first. The Constituent Assembly (25 January 1949) saw the affirmation of the Labor Party (Mapai), winner also in the elections of 30 July 1951, 26 July 1955 and 1959. Israel gave itself a democratic constitution (see below) and abolished all restrictions on Jewish immigration. 11 May 1949 the UN General Assembly accepted Israel as a member, after it had already been recognized by 52 countries, and the USA first. The Constituent Assembly (25 January 1949) saw the affirmation of the Labor Party (Mapai), winner also in the elections of 30 July 1951, 26 July 1955 and 1959. Israel gave itself a democratic constitution (see below) and abolished all restrictions on Jewish immigration. 11 May 1949 the UN General Assembly accepted Israel as a member, after it had already been recognized by 52 countries, and the USA first. The Constituent Assembly (25 January 1949) saw the affirmation of the Labor Party (Mapai), winner also in the elections of 30 July 1951, 26 July 1955 and 1959. Israel gave itself a democratic constitution (see below) and abolished all restrictions on Jewish immigration. For Israel 2014, please check thesciencetutor.org.
Population. – Within the current limits the state of Israel occupies an area of 20,244 km 2, on which live a population of about 2 million residents (2,058,000 in May 1959), almost 90% Jews, albeit of various origins and provenance. The current population is the result of an immigration current which, which began in the last decades of the last century, gained strength between the two world wars (485,000 immigrants from 1919 to 1947) and became massive in the years following 1947. The Israelite population, which in the 1948 had 655,000 residents, almost doubled in 1950 and tripled in 1957. This vigorous and extraordinary immigration flow benefited from the totalitarian contribution of the Jewish communities of some central European countries and the Balkans (Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia), North Africa (Libya) and the Near East (‛Irāq, Yemen). In this way the ethnic composition of the population is conditioned by this fact and the integration of immigrants has been tackled from the very beginning with vigorous measures. A gigantic colonization plan was launched right from the proclamation of the state. About 350 new villages were established along the borders, in the salient of Jerusalem and the Negev. About 300,000 ha of land abandoned by the Arabs was taken over by the “National Fund” and adapted to crops with the aid of mechanical means. A population plan, envisaged for a maximum population of 4.5 million residents, has as its task the decentralization of the population from the urban agglomerations to the countryside and naturally joins the plans for economic use of the whole national territory. Currently 1,240,000 residents (equal to 61% of the population) live in centers of over 20,000 residents Of these, five are more than 50,000 residents, and 40% of the total population lives in them.
The most characteristic rural settlement is made up of collective farms, scattered in arid and uncultivated areas and even in the Negev desert, where irrigation reaches. These free farming communities called kibbutzim (kibbutz = group, collectivity) are the flagship patrols of the country’s colonization and their locations are equipped with schools, cultural venues, libraries, infirmaries, etc. The kibbutzim population can vary between 300 and 1500 residents; the rights and duties of everyone are equal and private property is abolished. In addition to the kibbutzim, the agricultural population lives in communities organized according to more moderate collectivistic principles, while in the regions of more ancient immigration, especially in the northern coastal strip, private property, even large, is in force.
Finances. – The country’s currency position vis-à-vis foreign countries has had a consistently negative trend for all the past years. But the pace of imports was able to be maintained due to the large contribution of American aid, to the contributions of the Jewish communities in the world, to the payments of reparations by Germany (see below). The country’s foreign exchange reserves have remained more or less stable in recent years, after the dip in the three-year period 1952-54.
The strongest inflationary impulses originated in the public sector, which was first engaged in the execution of the defense and rearmament works and then in the strengthening of local industries, which, apart from state credit and foreign capital, have practically no other means of subsistence. Furthermore, the problem of providing adequate accommodation for immigrants has required financial intervention by the state, especially in the field of construction.
The Bank of Israel began its full function as central bank in December 1954, absorbing the activities of the Leumi bank, which previously had the privilege of issuing notes and which held most of the cash reserves of the other banks. commercial.
The monetary unit is the Israeli pound, which has a gold content of gr. 0.493706 of fine gold. The parity rate with the US dollar, declared to the IMF in March 1957, is Israeli pounds 1.80 and applies to most foreign transactions. Exporters benefit from a premium in the measure of the added value of exported industrial products (value equal to the difference between export revenues and related currency costs). The rewards vary according to the type of currency received and the destination of the goods. For the main product categories they amount to Israeli pounds 0.85 per dollar. Revenues from invisible items also benefit from rewards and privileges. Since March 1959, tourists have received a 20% premium for the conversion of foreign currencies, which is equivalent to a change of 2,
Communications. – The internal communications network is efficient and continuously developing, especially road (3,100 km, of which 2,520 were asphalted, in 1958, compared to 428 km of railways). The new Beersheba-Eilat lorry road (alongside the oil pipeline) is the latest major achievement in this field. The lack of relations with neighboring countries meant that the new state turned with particular interest to maritime communications and led to the formation of an efficient merchant navy. This numbered, in 1958, 36 ships for a total tonnage of 210,000 t. Main port is Haifā On the gulf of ‛Aqaba, Eilat has become an important port for communications with the East (export of copper, phosphates, potash; import of oil).