Israel Politics and Economy

By | December 22, 2021

Institutional organization

Israel is a parliamentary republic with a single chamber (the Knesset) made up of 120 seats, elected every four years on a proportional basis. There is no preference vote in legislative elections. In Israel, the election takes place on a proportional basis of a single national block-list college – that is, the entire territory -, with a 2% threshold. The order of the list is determined by each party or alliance through an internal procedure; if a list obtains a certain number of seats on the Knesset, the candidates are elected at the meeting based on the order in which they appeared on the list. In an effort to build more stable government alliances, a new law was passed in March 2014 that raises the threshold required for representation in the Knesset from 2% to 3.25%.

The form of government is parliamentary, the prime minister formally acquires the office from the president of the republic but must obtain the confidence of the assembly to govern.

The Knesset elects the president of the republic every seven years, a role currently held by Likud member Reuven Rivlin, who was elected on 10 June 2014 as the tenth head of the Jewish state, succeeding Shimon Peres. The president of the republic has a purely representative function being the exercise of executive power delegated in its entirety to the prime minister, who is usually the leader of the party or the majority coalition in the Knesset. Judicial power is entrusted to the Supreme Court and to district and local courts scattered throughout the territory. The judicial system is divided into three levels of judgment: the city court, the district courts, which act as both an appeal and first instance, and the Supreme Court, the last instance of appeal and verdict, which carries out duties of cassation and constitutional lawfulness. Like the UK, the Israeli legal system is founded on common law ; Israel does not have a written constitution drawn up in a single document, but has multiple basic laws based on Knesset regulations, constitutional conventions, Jewish religious precepts, and the 1948 declaration of independence of the state of Israel. For Israel political system, please check equzhou.

Economy and energy

Israel has a technologically advanced market economy. It is no coincidence that info-telematic and high-tech production and research represent one of the flagships of the Israeli economy. L ‘ high tech, in fact, has driven Israeli exports from 2003 onwards and has contributed decisively to the development of the defense, Israel is the sixth country in the world for exports of armaments and the first for sales share compared to the total export volume. The first consumer of Israeli arms is India, but Europe is also becoming a major buyer. However, the economy is dominated by the service sector, which contributes to the GDP for about 66% of the total, while industry and agriculture account for 31.4% and 2.5% respectively. The latter sector, once of fundamental importance, is now in slow decline, although in the early 1950s it was at the basis of the country’s development. As regards services, however, the most important sector, together with the banking sector, is tourism. Although the tourism economy suffers from the country’s poor security, visitors are growing: in 2014, 3.2 million tourists were registered, mainly from the United States and Russia. Another strategic sector of the Israeli economy is represented by the diamond industry: Israel is one of the most important countries in the world for the trade of cut diamonds, together with Belgium and India. Israel’s largest trading partner,

Years of prudent fiscal policy and a flexible banking sector have allowed Israel to quickly recover the losses resulting from the global crisis. Israel’s economy has also withstood the storm unleashed by the Arab Springs, thanks to strong trade ties outside the Middle East that have made it immune to spillover effects.spilled over the entire region. Israel is a country traditionally dependent on energy imports, which cover almost 80% of the national annual requirement. This dependence proved to be a vulnerability factor, especially in the natural gas sector, when, following the triumph of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt (the only gas supplier) decided, in April 2012, to suspend the supply contract in force with Tel Aviv. However, the 2009 discovery of massive natural gas fields in the Mediterranean off the coast of Israel revitalized the country’s energy security landscape and changed the regional gas geopolitics.

In addition to energy, another issue of strategic importance for Israel is the water issue. The country has the largest source of water supply in the Sea of ​​Galilee and this has caused serious conflicts with neighboring Syria, as the lake is partly located on the territory of the Golan Heights, occupied and annexed by Israel, but claimed by Damascus.. The problem linked to the management of water resources, moreover, also affects relations with Lebanon and the Palestinian National Authority. To make up for the shortage of fresh water, Israel has built high-tech desalination plants that since 2015 have brought the annual production of drinking water to over 600 million cubic meters.

Israel Politics and Economy