The State of Israel it does not have a written constitution: it will be replaced by the set of “fundamental laws” that will be enacted from time to time. The first of these, the Law of the Knesset (parliament) was passed in February 1958. However, a series of ordinary laws relating to various constitutional issues are in force, such as the Judicial and Administrative Ordinance (1948), the Parliamentary Electoral Law (1955).), the law relating to the election and functions of the President of the Republic (1951), the law on the independence of the judiciary (1953), the law on compulsory education (1949) and the law on state education (1953). To this same type of constitutional legislation belong the Law of Return (1950), which declares the State of Israel open to
The parliament, or Knesset, has a single chamber and has 120 members. He is elected every four years by secret ballot and direct universal suffrage, with the system of proportional representation. For Israel political system, please check politicsezine.com.
Local authorities are of three kinds: municipal corporations, local councils and regional councils; legal status, powers and functions are established by statute. Regional councils are set up in agricultural areas and they control all agricultural establishments located in the area under their jurisdiction. All local authorities are elected in office for four years, and exercise their power essentially by means of legislative measures approved by the Ministry of the Interior. Their funds come from taxes imposed with the approval of the ministry itself.
Religious affairs are supervised by a special ministry, with particular departments for the Christian, Muslim and Druze communities. However, the religious affairs of each community remain under the full control of the ecclesiastical authorities concerned: the Sephardi and Ashkenazi chief rabbis for the Jews, the heads of the various communities for the Christians, the Cadís for the Muslims. The Druze were officially recognized in 1957 as an autonomous religious community.
Saturdays and Jewish religious holidays are observed as days of rest in public offices. However, the free exercise of other faiths is fully guaranteed, as is the observance, by the respective adherents, of their own days of rest and their own religious holidays.
The school system of Israel it is under the direction of the Ministry of Education, and includes kindergartens and primary, secondary and technical schools. The Hebrew University, founded in 1925, is an independent center of higher education and research. A law passed by the Knesset on September 12, 1949 establishes free and compulsory education for all young people between 5 and 14 years of age; the state education law of August 1953 established a unified primary school system under state control, with special provisions for special religious schools. There are many private schools in the cities; and others maintained by municipalities or administered by cooperatives or teachers’ commissions. There are also private schools maintained by Jewish religious foundations,
In the field of higher education, in addition to the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (faculty of literature and philosophy, social sciences, law, sciences, medicine and agriculture), the Haifā Institute of Technology, to which a higher technical school is affiliated ; the Weizmann Scientific Institute of Rehovoth (chemistry, physics and biology); the Tel Avīv School of Law and Economics; the University of Tel Avīv; the Bar-Ilan University, religious, of Ramat Gan (Hebrew studies, natural sciences, social sciences, philology).
The Judicial and Administrative Ordinance of 1948, the first law approved by the Provisional Council of the State, confirmed for the State of Israel the judicial norms in force in Palestine on May 14, 1948, unless they are incompatible with the Ordinance or with other laws enacted by the Israeli parliament, and with the changes required by the institution of the state and state bodies. The death penalty was abolished in 1954, except in cases of activities in favor of the Nazis and in cases of high treason.
Current law derives from three different sources: Ottoman law, English law and the law introduced by Palestinian law which, moreover, is largely modeled on English law.
The rabbinical courts of the Jewish community have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of marriages and divorces, settlement of relations between spouses and in some other cases. A similar jurisdiction is provided for the courts of the Christian and Muslim communities. In the event that a particular action affects persons belonging to different religious communities, the Supreme Court determines which court is competent to judge.
A law of 8 September 1949 establishes compulsory military service with a stop of 2 and a half years for men between 18 and 26 years and 2 years for men between 27 and 29 years; unmarried women between 18 and 26 years of age perform military service for a period of 2 years. Military service also involves a period of training in agricultural work.