Iraq Demographics 1975

By | December 19, 2021

Population. – According to a 1975 estimate, the Iraqi population amounted to 11,124,250 residents, excluding nomads. The annual growth coefficient is quite high (3.3% in the years 1970-74). The residents, 80% Arabs, with strong minorities of Kurds and then Turks, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Iranians, are mainly concentrated in the northern regions (between Kirkūk and Mossul) for the good opportunities offered by the activities related to oil and flat central region for good agricultural possibilities.

Economic activities. – Even if it participates only to a secondary extent in the national economy, agriculture still occupies 47% of the active population. Despite the impressive hydraulic works and land reform, agriculture is often practiced according to archaic schemes and systems. There are few modern companies and cooperative forms, and state-owned companies are still not very widespread today. The agricultural economy is still based on cereals (wheat 8.5 million q in 1975, barley 4.4 million q; then rice and corn) with date palm (4 million q per year, equal to one fifth of world product). In irrigated areas (corresponding to one third of the land area) there is a greater variety of products (cotton, tobacco, opium, vegetables, sugar beet, oil plants). In the cool and humid regions of the north, orchards thrive. As far as breeding is concerned, the number of camels and sheep remained almost unchanged compared to the previous decade, while there was a sharp increase in buffaloes (330,000), cattle (2,116,000), goats (2,675,000) and a decrease in donkeys, mules and horses. Breeding is practiced in the vast steppes (two thirds of the national territory) by nomadic and semi-nomadic shepherds and still today it is almost never connected to agriculture. The weight of fishing is not very relevant, except for the contribution of the marshy areas that extend between al-Amāra on the Tigris and Suq ash-Shuyukh on the Euphrates, up to the Shaṭṭ al ‘Arab. In 1975, fish production amounted to 21,832 tons. For Iraq 2001, please check naturegnosis.com.

The main wealth of the country is oil, whose production in 1976 was 107,664,000 t (the Iraq is at the top of the world); to which 1,210 million m 3 must be addedof natural gas. In the last decade, oil production has doubled and has allowed a rapid development of the industries related to it more closely (refineries in Alwand, Davra, Muftieh, Qaiyāra; chemical industries in Baghdād, Babylon, Maditha, etc.). Iraq has always had tense relations with the concessionaire company (IPC) and this has favored the formation of a National Hydrocarbon Body (INOC) to which the task of enhancing the state’s existing and not yet developed oil resources has been devolved. To this end, INOC is assisted by the French company ERAP, and by Soviet technicians, who operate in the field of research and for the execution of projects concerning the construction of refineries and oil pipelines (Mossul and Baghdād).

Apart from the oil sector, there are good industries in the textile field (cotton in Mossul, artificial silk in Hindiyah, wool in Baghdād), in tobacco factories, in cement factories (Baghdād, Mossul and Kirkūk). A certain importance still retains the craftsmanship of silver.

Routes of communication and trade. – The good geographical position, between the Levant and India, has always favored the country, which today dedicates a large part of its oil assets to the expansion of communication routes. A trunk for Khānaqīn was added to the Mossul-Baghdād-Basra railway. The road network is well developed (10,824 km). The main traffic nodes are represented by Basra and Baghdād, which are the locations of the country’s two international airports.

Exports of the Iraq they are based for 93% on oil, which keeps the trade balance active; other export products are dates, cement, skins, etc. Imports mainly concern machinery, vehicles, food products, pharmaceuticals, textiles. Exchanges are intense both with Western countries and with the Soviet Union.

Iraq 1975