Population. – A 1938 valuation estimated the residents to be 3.7 million; a 1945 census gave 4,611,350 residents.
Agriculture and livestock. – Further increased the production of dates (30 million palms of which 18 in the Shaṭṭ el-‛Arab, in 1944) which is estimated at about 2.5 million q. per year, on average, of which between 1.5 and 2 are for export (especially from Basra). The Iraqi date harvest is therefore equivalent to about 80% of the world one.
Regarding the most important cereal crops, in 1945 wheat invested 777,000 ha. with a production of 4 million q., and the barley occupied an even greater surface (826,000 ha.) with 6.5 million q. of product. Some success – however not equal to the hopes nurtured – has had cotton, of which 5360 ha were grown in 1942. with a production of 725 t. The zootechnical patrimony is increasing: in 1945 there were 6.4 million cattle; 1.9 of goats; 865,000 cattle; 136,000 buffaloes; 200,000 horses; 435,000 donkeys; 300,000 camels.
Mining production. – Oil production has increased sharply in recent years, after the decline which occurred at the beginning of the war (it had dropped from 4.1 million tons in 1939 to 1.5 in 1941). After 1942 (2.6 million tonnes) the recovery was rapid and in 1944 the pre-war level of production was reached, which was then surpassed in the following years (1946: 4.6 million tonnes). For Iraq 2012, please check eningbo.info.
Communications. – A railway section is now in operation (200 km.) That from Qal‛at Shirqāt, where a railway arrives from Baghdād, goes to Mossul, and from this city to the border with Syria (Tel-Kotchek). The railway, in Syrian territory, then continues up to Aleppo. The railway network measured, in 1947, 1550 km. The truckable roads, on the same date, had a total length of 6400 km. of which about 1/3 bitumen. Baghdād is home to several airlines.
Commerce. – He has marked, in recent years, these figures (in millions of Iraqi dollars):
The characteristics of the commercial movement remain unchanged. But there is an increase in exports to the United States (30% of the exported value) and a decrease in imports from India (1/5 of the value in 1941-46, against 1/3 in the previous twenty years).
Finances. – The trend of finances during the war denotes a certain balance between income and expenditure.
The circulation has grown from 5.8 million dinars in 1939000000 to 32.7000000 in September 1948. After the war the ‘Iraq had amassed against Britain, for supplies, services, etc., A credit balance sterling amounting to 50 million pounds. In November 1947, the government authorized the creation of a central bank.
History. – In April 1939, just on the eve of the Second World War, the Iraq lost the young King Ghāzī to a car accident. He was succeeded by his son Faiṣal II, under the regency of his uncle ‛Abd el-Ilāh, while the new world conflict brought back the question of Iraq’s obligations towards England, according to the 1930 treaty. it fell in the spring of 1941: nationalist and military elements overthrew the moderate government of Ṭāhā al-Hāshimī, and replaced it with Rashīd ‛Ālī el-Kailānī who in the previous January had had to abandon power under British pressure; a new regent was also appointed in the person of Sheriff Sharaf. Great Britain immediately concentrated troops in Basra asking the Iraqi government for permission not only to transit, but to stay and organize bases in the country; resisting the Kailānī cabinet, hostilities undoubtedly opened (May 1941) and in less than a month, despite the help of the Italian-German air forces, the resistance of the nationalists was crushed. In early June, the British resettled regent ‛Abd el-Ilāh in Baghdād, who formed a pro-British cabinet with Genīl el-Midfa‛ī. Trials and convictions against the leaders of the movement followed. In early June, the British resettled regent ‛Abd el-Ilāh in Baghdād, who formed a pro-British cabinet with Genīl el-Midfa‛ī. Trials and convictions against the leaders of the movement followed. In early June, the British resettled regent ‛Abd el-Ilāh in Baghdād, who formed a pro-British cabinet with Genīl el-Midfa‛ī. Trials and convictions against the leaders of the movement followed.
In December 1941, under the ministry of Nūrī Āl Sa‛id, a new Anglo-Iraqi naval and military agreement made the bases of Basra and Fao at the mouth of the Shaṭṭ el-‛Arab available to Great Britain. On January 16, 1943, the Iraq declared war on the Axis powers, thus also sealing de iure its alignment with the Allies. Further acts of Iraqi foreign policy in recent years are: its accession to the Arab League (March 1945), its admission to the UN, the Turkish-Iraqi friendship treaty (April 1946). In the autumn of 1947, the gradual withdrawal of British troops from Iraq was complete, except for the garrison contingents of the Shaiba and Ḥabbaniyya air bases. A new Anglo-Iraqi alliance treaty was signed in Portsmouth on January 15, 1948, modifying the one of 1930, but violent anti-British unrest in Baghdād led to the resignation of the Ṣāliḥ Giabr ministry which had negotiated it. On 29 January a new cabinet was formed, under the presidency of the sayyid Moḥammed eṣ-Ṣadr who, as a first act rejected the Treaty, and on 25 February he had the parliament dissolved by the regent. At the end of June 1948, following the political elections, a new ministry was set up chaired by el-Paciagī.