Iraq Between 1978 and 1992

By | December 19, 2021

The Iraqi commitment for a privileged understanding with Syria and for a connection with the states of the so-called ” Front of Firmness ”, that is hostile to the agreements between Egypt and Israel, continued successfully until it was outlined (October 1978) a pact with Damascus for a constitutional charter and for common political management bodies. Parallel to the internal crisis that led to the exit of the Communists from the National Front (March 1979), however, there was the rise of the vice-president of the Republic, Ṣ. Ḥusayn, at the top of the state, the army and the party; he thus became the sole and highest authority, also due to the abandonment of the office of President of the Republic by the gen. AH al-Bakr (July 16).

A complex reorientation of Iraqi addresses thus developed, marked by the restoration of good relations with Egypt, with the main states of the Arabian peninsula and with Turkey, and by the worsening of relations with Iran (where the revolution had now triumphed). khomeinista) and with Syria itself, an ally of Teherān. While the elections of June 20, 1980 highlighted Ḥusayn’s extensive control over the country, the relaunch of economic relations with the West and the United States (the official resumption of diplomatic relations took place on November 26, 1984) represented another step in guaranteeing the ‘῾I. a background of support in view of the imminent attack on Iran. For Iraq 2010, please check programingplease.com.

The Baghdād offensive beyond the Iranian border for the conquest, in particular, of central-southern Iran, claimed as Arabistan, began in mid-September 1980 and, thanks to careful preparation, quickly led to the occupation of numerous urban centers. However, Teherān not only avoided the collapse but, adopted in 1981 exceptional political-military reorganization measures, began to make its superiority weigh in as human potential, given the length of the fighting fronts (about 1500 km) and the possibility – on the contrary to expectations – to prolong the conflict for a long time. It was around the same time that Israeli aircraft destroyed the Tamūz nuclear power plant near Baghdād. A year later – March 1982 – Iraqi troops began to retreat from the conquered territories after suffering considerable losses, until they retreated across the border in the Basra area (July). The ῾I. he was forced to ask for increasing economic and military aid from friendly countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates), increasingly assuming the role of a staunch opponent of the Shiite revolution. Starting from the first months of 1984, the clash took on the character of a war of attrition, in which there were, however, violent Iranian offensives which in November 1985 allowed the forces of Teherān to cross the Šaṭṭ al-῾Arab and conquer the Fao peninsula. he was forced to ask for increasing economic and military aid from friendly countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates), increasingly assuming the role of a staunch opponent of the Shiite revolution. Starting from the first months of 1984, the clash took on the character of a war of attrition, in which there were, however, violent Iranian offensives which in November 1985 allowed the forces of Teherān to cross the Šaṭṭ al-῾Arab and conquer the Fao peninsula. he was forced to ask for increasing economic and military aid from friendly countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates), increasingly assuming the role of a staunch opponent of the Shiite revolution. Starting from the first months of 1984, the clash took on the character of a war of attrition, in which there were, however, violent Iranian offensives which in November 1985 allowed the forces of Teherān to cross the Šaṭṭ al-῾Arab and conquer the Fao peninsula.

To ease Iranian pressure, Iraq it mainly resorted to the use of chemical weapons and air strikes on Teherān and the Gulf area, to which Iran responded with the launch of long-range missiles. The conflictual situation that arose in a region of vital importance both from a strategic point of view and for oil traffic led the United States and Western countries to garrison the Gulf, from the second half of 1987, with air and naval forces. The multiple supports thus allowed ῾I., In the spring of 1988, to resume the initiative and to regain ground around Basra (easing the pressure on the Šaṭṭ al-῾Arab), to the point of inducing Iran to accept the resolution UN Security Council (No. 598; July 20, 1987), which imposed a ceasefire (August).

After the end of hostilities the Iraq he did not give up on pursuing a hegemonic role in the region; entry (1989) of the Arab Cooperation Council together with Egypt, Jordan and Yemen, Baghdād engaged in the Lebanese civil war by supporting the Phalangist general M. ῾Awn, in opposition to Syria which supported the government of Salim al-Hoss.

Ṣ. Ḥusayn, confirmed in power by the elections of April 1989, found himself facing a troubled economy, due to the destruction of the war and the heavy debt situation towards the rich oil countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Furthermore, a disparity of views emerged in oil policy with those same countries, on the whole opposed to fixing increases in the cost of crude oil. Squeezed in the grip of the repayments to be made, equipped with a conspicuous military arsenal that solicited its ambitions, the Iraq in the summer of 1990 he directed his expansionist aims towards Kuwait, or rather against the state whose legitimacy had always been contested because it was considered an artificial result of colonialist maneuvers.

Trusting that Western support would not turn into hostility and that the Arab world would continue the negotiations, the Iraqi government carried out the occupation of Kuwait on 2 August 1990. The international reactions were instead of harsh and immediate condemnation, while there was also a split in the alignment of the Arab countries. The UN Security Council in August 1990 imposed a strict system of economic sanctions against I, and in November authorized the use of force to force Iraqi forces to withdraw from the occupied territories. The action of the United States and its allies, after careful preparation based in particular on the agreement with Saudi Arabia, which made its territory available as a basis for war actions, culminated in a ‘Gulf War, in this Appendix). Also very serious are the material damage and human losses caused by the Iraqi military action, which destroyed the territory of Kuwait, set fire to its oil wells and caused the pollution of the Gulf, with irreparable repercussions on the environment. The Iraqi action of repression of the Shiite and Kurdish independence movements in an attempt to prevent the break-up of the territory is still marked by great harshness.

Subjected to the continuation of the embargo and forced by the clauses of the resolution of the Security Council of 3 April to severe armistice conditions, the ῾I. he found himself going through a difficult post-war period, also marked by repeated threats from the United States of resuming hostilities under the accusation of non-compliance with the armistice clauses. A new element was the cautious review of the attitude towards Baghdād that emerged in the Arab world: in March 1992, the Egyptian President H. Mubārak and the Syrian President Ḥāfiz Asad, among the staunchest opponents of the aggression against Kuwait, distanced themselves from the hypothesis of new interventions against Iraq. On August 26, 1992, the UN Security Council approved, despite the protests of the Iraq.

Iraq 2010