Iran is a state in south-western Asia, bordering by land with Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan to the N (where, however, the limit is also provided for a stretch by the Caspian Sea), Afghanistan and the Pakistan to the E, Turkey and Iraq to the West, while to the South it overlooks the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman connected by the Strait of Hormuz.
Flora and fauna
The Iranian flora represents a connection and transition between the flora of the Caucasian, Mesopotamian and Asia Minor regions and that of the steppes of Central Asia. The Persian salty desert is characterized by the lack or extreme poverty of vegetation due to the great salinity of the soil; at its southern end there is a halophytic vegetation with Calligonee and Salsolee, to which are added various Graminaceae and, in the bare rocks of the hills, shrubs and often thorny bushes (Pistacia, Astragalus etc.). In the very hot area (gamsir), at the northern limit of the date ( Phoenix ) and jujube (Zizyphus spina Christi), there is an ephemeral vegetation with plants that end their biological cycle before the torrid summer. Sardsir are called the temperate-cold zones, used by nomads for summer grazing, and giängal those with woody formations which, on the slope towards the Caspian Sea, include Fagus silvatica at its eastern limit, as well as Platanus orientalis, Quercus persica, Carpinus orientalis, Zelkova crenata and various Fraxinus, Acer, Populus, boxwood, cypress. The Alpine region is located, according to the zones, at an altitude between 2000 and 2500 m. Many fruit trees grow in the Zagros Mountains, including peach trees and others that are believed to be native to the area.
The fauna includes few lions and tigers, while leopards and lynxes are more numerous. Jackals, wolves and foxes are also well represented; gazelles are also abundant. The fauna of rodents and reptiles is very rich; the Caspian Sea is populated by several groups of seals. The mountain systems are home to several endemic species of Insects and other Arthropods. The flora and fauna resources are protected in 11 natural parks. For Iran 2014, please check thesciencetutor.org.
From the ethnic point of view, the Iranians constitute the majority: Persians in clear prevalence, then Baloch, Kurds (about 5 million) and semi-nomadic populations such as the lur.
There are oases of greater density such as the Caspian coast and the high valleys of the NO, fertile and well-watered regions, in open contrast to the desolate central-eastern districts where, with some exceptions, the population is almost absent. The inhabited centers, cities and villages have sprung up on the edges of the desert plateau, like on the banks of a large lake. 35% of the population is considered rural and generally lives in villages, often closed and fortified, located in the center of the oasis or in any case where the presence of surface water allows irrigation and therefore agricultural crops. Forms of nomadism remain, and commuter migrations are still carried out today by some large tribes of the Zagros. Two thirds of the population therefore live in urban areas. The trend towards urbanization, which characterized phases of the demographic and social evolution of the Iran, is reflected by the increase in the number of cities with more than 100,000 residents, which rose from 9 in 1956 to 38 thirty years later. Inherited from the most ancient civilizations of the past and elaborated in new forms by Islam, urbanism, with the eruption of modern activities, has taken on aspects of Western imitation, while respecting the local conception of wide and tree-lined streets, of shady gardens, fountains, original urban elements that nevertheless are encountered more and more rarely in the centers of recent and rapid development. The city of Tehran has about 7.7 million residents. (2009), but the whole original urban elements which, however, are encountered more and more rarely in the centers of recent and rapid development. The city of Tehran has about 7.7 million residents. (2009), but the whole original urban elements which, however, are encountered more and more rarely in the centers of recent and rapid development. The city of Tehran has about 7.7 million residents. (2009), but the whole urban agglomeration exceeds 12 million; other cities with more than 1 million residents they are Mashhad, Esfahan, Tabriz and Shiraz.
Shiite Islam is the dominant religion, professed by 93% of the population; the rest mainly follows Sunni Islam (5.7%).