Iran Literature 1979

By | December 16, 2021

In the last thirty years the literature of the Iran it seems to show a continuation of the main guidelines identified for the previous period. Apart from that poetry which still uses classical formal instruments and which also gave some notable representatives such as Maleko ‘sh-Sho’arā’ Bahār (died 1951), who knew how to infuse new contents into traditional forms, we are now in the realm of so-called poetry. new (she’re nou), which no longer uses the traditional means of rhyme and metric rhythm, and of modern prose, which tends to be realistic in the face of the prevailing traditional symbolism. Two figures are considered to be the initiators of modern prose and poetry: Ṣādeq Hedāyat (who committed suicide in Paris in 1951) for prose and Nīmā Yūshīj (1895-1960) for poetry. In the modernist poets one can distinguish a current of committed and apolitical ones with mostly symbolist tendencies. Among the first are the notable poet Forūgh Farrokhzad (born in Teherān in 1935 and died in a car accident in 1967), who manages to speak immediately about the passion of the senses; Bāmdād (born in Teherān in 1925), who combines lyrical and epic qualities and who despite his political commitment uses a refined language, so that in Qoqnū s dar b ā r ā n (“The Phoenix in the Rain”, Teherān 1967) produced a poetic prose reminiscent of the biblical style and that of the first Persian Sufis; Ommīd (born in Mashhad in 1928), with a more narrative than pictorial style, with a melancholic and sardonic tone at the same time (something not uncommon in modern Persian poets). Among the non-politicians, Nāder Nāderpūr (born in Teherān in 1929) stands out above all, who is now considered the dean of the “new” for his abundant production: a lyric poet with a nostalgic temperament, he is a master of refined words and crystalline diction. Another non-committed is Sepehrī (born in Qom in 1928), who in his verses reflects the simple joys of a child and life experiences not exempt from a certain mystical vein. Others of this current are Sāyeh and Moshīrī, romanticizing lyricists, Neyestānī, Golchīn Gīlanī and Sereshk. For Iran 2019, please check

Even more modern forms shows the so-called “new wave” (mouje nou) characterized by the desire not only to renounce any residue of classical norms, but also to fight certain fashions widespread among the modernists of the first style, and in general any barrier to complete “freedom of expression”.

The main figure of this movement is the imagist Aḥmad Rezā Aḥmadī (born in Kermān in 1940), who does not yield to rhymes or rhythms, albeit modern, but with sometimes obscure language. Payām, the group theorist, insists that poetry must remain free from any moral, social or political commitment and even from conscious logic. Forms similar to these shows Royā’ī (born in Dāmghān in 1932), although he cannot be considered a member of the group. Many of the poets are also critics and theorists, chief among them Nāderpūr himself and the committed poet Barāhīni, the latter considered one of the most daring literary critics of today.

Among the prose writers, initially all under the influence of Hedāyat, Ṣādeq Chūbak (born in Bushehr in 1916) is considered the leader of the realists: above all a novelist, he also wrote for the theater (T ū pel ā st ī k ī, “The rubber ball”, from 1962). Another great admirer of Hedāyat and committed activist is Āl-e Aḥmad (born in 1923), with a laconic and powerfully descriptive style, more interested in the social environment than in psychological intimism and increasingly critical of Westernizing influence. Even the stories of Behāzīn (born in Rasht in 1915), with a lyrical and expressive language, deal with poor people and social injustices. Ebrāhīm Golestān also belongs to the same group. Among the writers of the second generation we remember (but do not forget that many and of the first and second generations were also fruitful translators of European works) Modarresī (born in Teherān in 1934), Mīr-ṣādeqī (born in Teherān in 1933), Qarīb Sā‛edī (born in Tabrīz in 1935) and Afghānī (born in Kermānshāh in 1925), this

An almost unknown literary genre (apart from the popular ta ziyè, a kind of medieval religious mysteries) in traditional Persian literature, which has found numerous followers in modern times, is drama. Among the most successful modern playwrights is the aforementioned Sā‛edī, who writes under the pseudonym Gouhar-e Morād and has a notable satirical streak. Sadder and lyrical-philosophical is Beiżā’ī (born in Teherān in 1938), whose plays seem more like dramatized poems, sometimes with characters with transparently symbolic names (the Puppeteer, the Hero, the Demon, the Maiden, etc..).

Naturally, there is no lack of imitators of the “theater of the absurd”, such as Becket and Ionesco, such as Na’Ibandiyān (born in 1947), who is considered one of the most promising figures among young Persian playwrights.

Iran Literature 1979